koyelIn a significant academic achievement, the Department of Mathematics is proud to announce that Dr Koyel Chakravarty, an Assistant Professor, along with her diligent PhD Scholar, Ms Amrutha Sreekumar, has made a remarkable contribution to the field of biological mathematics. Their paper, titled “Exploring the Impact of PTH Therapy on Bone Remodeling: A Mathematical Investigation,” has been officially accepted for publication in the prestigious Journal of Biological Systems by World Scientific.

This paper presents a comprehensive mathematical model that investigates the effects of Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) therapy on bone remodelling processes. The research provides valuable insights that could potentially lead to more effective treatments for bone-related diseases and conditions.

The university community extends its heartfelt congratulations to Dr Chakravarty and Ms Sreekumar for their dedication and hard work.


The regulatory role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone, a crucial calcium reservoir, is influenced by sex steroids, notably estrogen. A mathematical model elucidates PTH-mediated bone remodeling mechanisms, examining plasma PTH effects and external dosages. Daily PTH injections, with their dual anabolic or catabolic action, offer a notable treatment for severe osteoporosis. This study predicts osteogenic responses to PTH, integrating factors like TGF-β, RANKL, and bisphosphonates in osteoblast-osteoclast signaling, alongside PTH’s effects on glands and regulatory molecules like Runx2, pCREB, and Bcl2. Using various methods, including simulations and sensitivity analysis, it aims to understand PTH therapy’s impact on bone volume, enhancing its clinical relevance.

Explanation of the Research in Layperson’s Terms

The role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in calcium storage within bones is significant, with its regulation influenced by other hormones, notably estrogen. A mathematical model has been developed to comprehend the effects of PTH on bones, examining both endogenous levels in the blood and exogenous intake requirements. It has been observed that daily PTH injections can be beneficial in treating severe bone conditions like osteoporosis, as these injections can induce either bone formation or resorption, depending on their administration method. Additionally, the response of bones to PTH is under scrutiny in this study, considering various substances such as TGF-β, RANKL, and bisphosphonates, and their interplay in maintaining bone health. Through the utilization of different methodologies including computer simulations, efforts are being made to precisely understand how PTH injections influence bone health, thereby enhancing their efficacy in addressing bone-related ailments.

Title of the Research paper in the Citation Format

Exploring the Impact of PTH Therapy on Bone Remodeling: A Mathematical Investigation

Practical Implementation or the Social Implications Associated
Personalized Treatment Plans:
Mathematical modeling of bone remodeling can facilitate the development of personalized treatment plans for individuals with bone disorders such as osteoporosis. By considering factors like hormone levels, genetic predispositions, and lifestyle factors, healthcare providers can tailor treatment strategies to optimize bone health outcomes.
1. Drug Development:
Insights gained from mathematical models can aid in the development of new drugs for bone disorders. By simulating the effects of potential therapeutic agents on bone remodeling processes, researchers can identify promising candidates for further investigation, potentially accelerating the drug discovery process.
2. Improved Clinical Decision Making:
Healthcare professionals can use mathematical models to make more informed clinical decisions regarding the management of bone disorders. By integrating patient-specific data into predictive models, clinicians can better predict treatment outcomes and adjust therapeutic interventions accordingly.
3. Enhanced Surgical Planning:
Mathematical modeling can also be valuable in surgical planning for procedures such as bone grafting or joint replacement. By simulating the effects of surgical interventions on bone remodeling, surgeons can optimize surgical techniques to promote more effective healing and long-term outcomes for patients.
4. Public Health Interventions:
Understanding the factors influencing bone remodeling at a population level can inform public health interventions aimed at reducing the burden of bone disorders. By identifying modifiable risk factors and developing targeted prevention strategies, policymakers can promote bone health and reduce the incidence of conditions like osteoporosis on a larger scale.
5. Educational Tools:
Mathematical models of bone remodeling can serve as educational tools for healthcare professionals, students, and patients. By visualizing complex biological processes in a simplified manner, these models can enhance understanding of bone physiology and the mechanisms underlying bone disorders, ultimately improving patient care and outcomes.

• Prof. D.C. Dalal, Professor, Department of Mathematics, IIT Guwahati
• Dr. L.N. Guin, Associate Professor, Department of Mathematics, Visva-Bharati

Future research plans.
a) Incorporating Multi-Scale Modeling: Future research could focus on integrating multi-scale modeling approaches to capture the intricate interactions occurring at different levels of bone structure, from the molecular to the tissue level. By incorporating information on cellular processes, tissue mechanics, and systemic factors, these models could provide a more comprehensive understanding of bone remodeling dynamics.
b) Accounting for Heterogeneity: There is a need to develop mathematical models that account for the heterogeneity observed in bone remodeling processes across individuals and within different anatomical sites. By considering factors such as age, sex, genetics, and bone quality, researchers can create more personalized and accurate models to predict individual responses to treatment and disease progression.
c) Integration of Advanced Imaging Techniques: Advances in imaging technologies such as micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide detailed insights into bone structure and function. Future research could focus on integrating data from these advanced imaging techniques into mathematical models to enhance their predictive capabilities and enable non-invasive monitoring of bone remodeling in clinical settings.
d) Exploring Therapeutic Interventions: Researchers could use mathematical modeling to explore the efficacy of novel therapeutic interventions for bone disorders, such as drug treatments, exercise regimens, and dietary interventions. By simulating the effects of these interventions on bone remodeling processes, researchers can identify optimal treatment strategies and accelerate the development of new therapies.

Link to the article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1142/S021833902450027X

sabyasachiThe Department of Physics is thrilled to announce a remarkable milestone in sustainable technology. Dr Sabyasachi Mukhopadhyay, Associate Professor and Ms Sreelekha Bhuvaneswari, BSc student has been officially granted a patent for their groundbreaking invention: “A fibre material with moisture retention capacity with thermal tolerance and a method for manufacture of the same.”

This pioneering material, distinguished by its Application Number 202141023375, stands at the forefront of cooling technology. It promises to enhance thermal regulation while prioritising environmental sustainability.

Dr Mukhopadhyay’s invention is poised to make significant contributions to the field of material science, offering a versatile solution that holds potential applications across various industries. The department extends its heartfelt congratulations to the duo on this significant achievement and looks forward to the positive impact his work will continue to have on our community and beyond.


The project, with the patent application number 202141023375, develops a methodology to design a fabric cloth that would replace the use of air conditioners. This cloth design is inspired by Saharan silver ants which regulate their body temperatures in the scorching desert heat and also from the cooling properties of clay. This research would significantly scale down the usage of AC and other cooling devices in warm places, thus reducing the use of electricity and emission of greenhouse gases to the environment. As this cloth would be environment friendly with long durability and cost-efficiency, Sreelekha hopes that this research would bridge the socioeconomic divide of haves and have-nots between communities.

Explanation of the Research in Layperson’s Terms :

Using room conditioning AC during these times, especially with lower temperatures is very risky. Virus spread with closed circulated air or prolonged cold temperatures while breathing, so thus using air conditioning is bad. With this in mind, we need an efficient way of cooling in the snoring temperatures. We propose developing a fabric that integrates clay (Its primary mineral is kaolinite; clay may be generally described as 40% aluminium oxide, 46% silicon oxide, and 14% water.) in its synthesis; clay is known for its cooling properties given enough water to retail and proper reflection techniques for heat throughout the fabric inspired from uniquely shaped hairs with triangular cross-sections as in arrangement employed by the Saharan silver ants. This model not only conserves energy compared to room cooling but also is very practical, wherein we can dampen the fabric with the least water and retain its cooling for long hours. This Fabric could be employed in a variety of settings, for example, in making carpets and curtains in a house to keep the room temperature regulated.

Practical Implementation and Social Implications:

The research would significantly scale down the usage of AC and other cooling devices in warm places, thus reducing the use of electricity and emission of greenhouse gases to the environment. As this cloth would be environment friendly with long durability and cost-efficiency, Sreelekha hopes that this research would bridge the socioeconomic divide of haves and have-nots between communities.

The Title of Patent in the Citation Format

“A fibre material with moisture retention capacity with thermal tolerance and a method for manufacture of the same” with Application Number: 202141023375


Prof. Seeram Ramakrishna, Professor of Materials, National University of Singapore

Future Research Plans:

The forthcoming endeavour encompasses the commercialisation of this pioneering concept to render it widely accessible and applicable on a larger scale.

BSc Mathematics is a comprehensive programme that offers a deep dive into various subject areas, shaping students’ understanding and expertise in the field of mathematics. Each subject plays a crucial role in developing analytical thinking and problem-solving skills, from foundational topics like calculus, algebra, and geometry to advanced areas such as differential equations, probability theory, and mathematical modelling.

As students progress through the curriculum, they encounter specialised BSc Mathematics subjects like fundamental analysis, complex analysis, and numerical methods, further enhancing their mathematical prowess.

Moreover, elective courses allow students to tailor their education to their interests and career aspirations, whether in pure mathematics, applied mathematics, or another specialised field. By navigating through these subjects, BSc Mathematics students gain a well-rounded education that prepares them for various career paths in academia, research, finance, data analysis, and beyond.

BSc Mathematics Subjects List

The subjects typically included in a BSc Mathematics programme may vary slightly depending on the university or college offering the course. However, some common subjects that are often part of the BSc Mathematics curriculum include:

  • Calculus
  • Algebra
  • Geometry
  • Differential Equations
  • Probability Theory
  • Statistics
  • Real Analysis
  • Complex Analysis
  • Linear Algebra
  • Number Theory
  • Discrete Mathematics
  • Numerical Methods
  • Mathematical Modelling
  • Operations Research
  • Mathematical Physics

These subjects provide a comprehensive understanding of various mathematical concepts and their applications in different fields.

Year-wise BSc Mathematics Syllabus:

BSc Mathematics syllabus 1st year

Semester 1:

  • Art of Listening, Speaking and Reading Skills
  • Environmental Science
  • Analytical Reasoning and Aptitude Skills
  • Chemical Basis of Life
  • Mathematics for the Physical World
  • Fundamentals of Computing
  • Emerging Technologies

Semester 2:

  • Effective Writing and Presentation Skills
  • Universal Human Values and Ethics
  • Entrepreneurial Mindset
  • Principles of management
  • Psychology for Everyday Living
  • Real Analysis
  • Linear algebra

BSc Mathematics syllabus 2nd year


  • Problem-Solving Skills
  • Co-Curricular Activities
  • Community Service and Social Responsibility
  • Digital literacy
  • Discrete Mathematics and Combinatorics
  • Real Analysis -2
  • Ordinary Differential Equation -1
  • Algebra – 1 (Group Theory)


  • Creativity and Critical thinking Skills
  • Co-Curricular Activities
  • Community Service and Social Responsibility
  • Mathematical Modelling of Physical Data
  • Complex Analysis
  • Probability and Statistics
  • General Topology

BSc Mathematics syllabus 3rd year


  • Co-Curricular Activities
  • Community Service and Social Responsibility
  • Linear Programming Problem
  • Real Analysis – 3
  • Partial Differential Equations-1
  • Numerical Analysis
  • Number Theory and Introduction to Cryptography


  • Co-Curricular Activities
  • Community Service and Social Responsibility
  • MATLAB, Sage and Mathematical
  • Measure Theory (For Pure and Applied Math)/ Data Structures and Algorithms (For Data Science and Industrial Mathematics)
  • Algebra-2 (For Pure Math/ Mechanics and Tensor Calculus (For Applied Math/ Applied Statistics (For Data Science and Industrial Mathematics)

BSc Mathematics syllabus 4th year


  • Algebra -3 (Galois Theory) (for Pure Math)/ PDE – 2 (For Applied Math)/ Regression analysis (for Data Science and Industrial Mathematics)
  • Operator Theory (For Pure Math)/ Dynamical Systems (For Applied Math)/ Stochastic process and Stochastic Differential Equations (For Data Science and Industrial Mathematics)


Internships and Research Projects

Jobs After BSc Mathematics

After completing a BSc Mathematics degree, graduates have a wide range of career opportunities available to them across various industries. Some common career paths for BSc Mathematics graduates include:

● Data Analyst
● Actuary
● Statistician
● Financial Analyst
● Operations Research Analyst
● Software Developer
● Market Research Analyst
● Teacher or Lecturer
● Risk Analyst
● Cryptographer

These are just a few examples of the diverse career paths available to BSc Mathematics graduates. The analytical, problem-solving, and critical thinking skills acquired during their studies make them valuable assets in a wide range of industries.

Shape Your Tomorrow with Numbers with B.Sc. Mathematics (Hons.) at SRM University-AP

The School of Engineering and Sciences at SRM University-AP offers B.Sc. Mathematics (Hons.) is a four-year undergraduate mathematics programme. Upon B.Sc. completion, students can seamlessly pursue PhDs domestically and internationally. The curriculum features robust foundational math courses alongside minors and open electives. From the sixth semester, students can specialise in three fields:

  • Pure Mathematics,
  • Applied Mathematics, and
  • Data Science and Industrial Mathematics.

B.Sc. Mathematics (Hons.) Programme Highlights:

A diverse range of electives encompassing four advanced discipline-specific options. An undergraduate thesis project aimed at enhancing students’ mathematical abilities and facilitating admission to prestigious graduate programmes in the US and Europe.

Dedicated faculty provide personalised guidance and supervision for each undergraduate thesis.
The meticulously crafted curriculum instils confidence in students to excel in national and international-level mathematics competitive exams such as GRE, CSIR NET, NBHM, GATE, JAM, TIFR, ISI, CMI, etc.
Students specialising in Data Science and Industrial Mathematics will receive comprehensive industry-oriented training.

Long Story Short:

Mathematics continues to be a fundamental discipline with widespread applications across various industries and sectors. With the increasing demand for skilled professionals adept in mathematical concepts and techniques, pursuing a B.Sc. Mathematics (Hons.) degree opens doors to numerous rewarding career opportunities.

SRM University-AP offers a comprehensive programme that equips students with the knowledge and skills necessary to excel in this dynamic field. Join it in shaping the future of mathematics and embark on a fulfilling academic journey that will prepare you for success in the ever-evolving world of mathematics and beyond. Take the first step towards a promising career by enrolling in B.Sc. Mathematics (Hons.) at SRM University-AP today!

NMRIn a significant leap forward for scientific research, SRM University-AP proudly inaugurated the 400 MHz NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) Spectrometer, procured through the DST-FIST program. This acquisition is a vital component of the broader DST FIST project, which has been awarded to the Department of Chemistry at SRM University- AP with a budget of 2.20 crores.

As part of the project, the Department of Chemistry was recommended a 400 MHz NMR spectrometer by DST, which will play a crucial role in enhancing our expertise and aiding in achieving the proposed objectives. This state-of-the-art equipment is capable of characterising organic, inorganic, and biomolecules, enabling us to conduct comprehensive analyses and advance our understanding of complex chemical systems.

The ceremony, graced by esteemed guests, university dignitaries, faculties, and students, heralded a new era of scientific exploration and innovation. Prof. Lakshmi Kantam Mannepalli, Dr B P Godrej Distinguished Professor, ICT Mumbai, Chief Guest at the event, expressed, ” The inauguration of the 400 MHz NMR Spectrometer heralds a new era of precision and insight in scientific exploration. This instrument will unravel the mysteries of molecular structures and catalyse groundbreaking discoveries in the realm of chemistry and beyond.”

Dr S Mannathan, Associate Professor, Department of Chemistry, extended a warm welcome to the esteemed gathering and offered an insightful demonstration of the equipment’s operation, highlighting its advanced features and functionalities.

Prof. Manoj K Arora, Vice Chancellor, conveyed heartfelt congratulations to the team for this remarkable accomplishment, emphasising the transformative impact the new NMR Spectrometer will have on research and academic pursuits within the Department of Chemistry and beyond.”

Prof D Narayana Rao, Executive Director – Research, SRM Group of Institutions, emphasised, “The addition of this advanced equipment will significantly enhance the research capabilities, opening new avenues for exploration and discovery.”

V S Rao, Advisor, lauded the team for their achievement, stating, “This state-of-the-art equipment embodies our commitment to providing cutting-edge resources for our researchers and fostering a culture of innovation and discovery.”

Dr Pardha Saradhi Maram, Head of the Department of Chemistry, expressed his gratitude to all present and extended heartfelt thanks for their support and encouragement.

The acquisition of the 400 MHz NMR Spectrometer represents a significant advancement in scientific instrumentation, enabling researchers to delve deeper into molecular structures, chemical compositions, and dynamic processes. The Equipment will not only benefit the Department of Chemistry and Physics but also serve as a valuable resource for faculties and students across various disciplines.

The university has already trained 70 to 80 individuals in the operation of this equipment and is planning to organise a workshop for students and faculties from different universities, offering them the opportunity to leverage this advanced technology for their research and academic pursuits.

HarshaSRM University-AP is proud to congratulate Harsha, a brilliant PhD scholar from the Department of Physics, for her exceptional achievement at the National Symposium of Research Scholars on Metallurgy and Materials held at IIT Kanpur. Harsha secured the prestigious 2nd prize for her remarkable presentation titled “Tarnish Resistance Mechanism in Ag-4Cu-2.5Zn-1Ge Novel Alloy: A Comprehensive Experimental and Computational Analysis”.

The symposium, organised at IIT Kanpur, brought together some of the brightest minds in the field of metallurgy and materials research. Harsha’s presentation stood out among the impressive array of research papers, showcasing her expertise and dedication to pushing the boundaries of scientific exploration.

Her presentation focused on the intricate mechanism of tarnish resistance in the Ag-4Cu-2.5Zn-1Ge novel alloy. Through a comprehensive analysis that combined experimental and computational approaches, Harsha shed light on the factors influencing tarnish resistance in this unique alloy composition. Her findings have significant implications for the development of advanced materials with enhanced durability and longevity.

The symposium, which congregates the brightest minds in the field, was the perfect platform for Harsha to showcase her extensive research. Her work, which provides significant insights into the tarnish resistance mechanisms of novel silver alloys, has been recognised for its depth and scientific rigour.

The recognition received by Harsha at this prestigious national symposium is a testament to her exceptional research capabilities and the quality of education and mentorship provided at SRM University-AP. It highlights the university’s commitment to nurturing talent and fostering an environment conducive to groundbreaking research.

SRM University-AP extends its warmest congratulations to Harsha for this remarkable achievement. Her success serves as an inspiration to fellow students and researchers, encouraging them to pursue excellence in their respective fields of study.

Dr-Banee-SaswatIn a remarkable academic achievement, Dr Banee Bandana Das, Assistant Professor in Department of Computer Science and Engineering and Dr. Saswat Kumar Ram, Assistant Professor in Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, have made significant contributions to the field of biometric security. Their paper, titled “Person Identification using Autoencoder-CNN Approach with Multitask-based EEG Biometric,” has been published in the esteemed ‘Multimedia Tools and Applications journal, which is recognised as a Q1 journal with an impressive impact factor of 3.6.

This pioneering work showcases a novel approach to person identification using electroencephalogram (EEG) data. The research leverages the power of Autoencoder-CNN models combined with multitask learning techniques to enhance the accuracy and reliability of EEG-based biometric systems.

The publication of this paper not only underscores the high-quality research conducted at SRM University-AP but also places the institution at the forefront of innovative developments in biometric technology. It is a testament to the university’s commitment to advancing scientific knowledge and providing its faculty with a platform to impact the global research community positively.


In this research paper, we propose an unsupervised framework for feature learning based on an autoencoder to learn sparse feature representations for EEG-based person identification. Autoencoder and CNN do the person identification task for signal reconstruction and recognition. Electroencephalography (EEG) based biometric system is vesting humans to recognise, identify and communicate with the outer world using brain signals for interactions. EEG-based biometrics are putting forward solutions because of their high-safety capabilities and handy transportable instruments. Motor imagery EEG (MI-EEG) is a maximum broadly centered EEG signal that exhibits a subject’s motion intentions without real actions. The Proposed framework proved to be a practical approach to managing the massive volume of EEG data and identifying the person based on their different task with resting states.

The title of Research Paper in the Citation Format

Person identification using autoencoder-CNN approach with multitask-based EEG biometric. Multimedia Tools Appl (2024).

Practical implementation/social implications of the research

  1. To develop a personal identification system using MI-EEG data.
  2. This work is about an Autoencoder-CNN-based biometric system with EEG motor imagery inputs for dimensionality reduction and denoising (extracting original input from noisy data).
  3. The designed Autoencoder-CNN-based biometric architecture to model MI-EEG signals is efficient for cybersecurity applications.


  1. IIITDM, Kurnool, India
  2. National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India
  3. University of North Texas, Denton, USA

Future Research Plan

In the future, different deep learning and machine learning methods can be merged to explore better performance in this EEG-based security field and other signal processing areas. We will investigate the robustness deep learning architectures to design a multi-session EEG biometric system.

Link to The Article

In a significant scientific endeavour, Dr Maheshwar Dwivedy, Associate Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, and Dr B Prasanna Nagasai, Post-Doctoral Researcher have jointly authored a research paper titled “Metallurgical Characteristics of AA6061 Aluminium and AZ31B Magnesium Dissimilar Joints by Fusion Welding Technique”. Their work delves into the metallurgical properties of dissimilar joints formed by fusion welding between AA6061 aluminium and AZ31B magnesium.

The study, published in the esteemed Q1 journal “Microscopy Research and Technique”, sheds light on the intricate interactions between these two dissimilar materials. By employing advanced microscopy techniques, the researchers meticulously examined the weld interfaces, grain structures, and elemental compositions. Their findings contribute to our understanding of the joining behaviour and intermetallic formation in such hybrid joints.

This collaborative effort exemplifies SRM University – AP’s commitment to cutting-edge research and interdisciplinary exploration. As the scientific community continues to unravel the mysteries of material behaviour, Dr Dwivedy and Dr Nagasai’s work stands as a beacon of knowledge and innovation.

Stay tuned for more updates on this groundbreaking research!


Aluminium (Al) and magnesium (Mg) alloys are extensively used in the automobile sector because of their high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent castability, low density and simplicity of recycling. Al-Mg structures that automotive uses have a big chance of lowering their weight. Although there is a significant opportunity for substantial cost reduction, the use of magnesium in aluminium structures remains restricted. This study aims to weld 3 mm-thick rolled sheets of AA6061 Al and AZ31B Mg alloy using the cold metal transfer (CMT) arc welding process. Three different filler wires (ER1100, ER4043, and ER5356) were used in the experiment. In this article, the mechanical and microstructure characteristics of Al/Mg dissimilar joints manufactured by CMT are evaluated and discussed in depth. Optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction were all used to analyse the CMT-welded Al/Mg dissimilar joints. Of the three filler wires used, ER4043 (Al-5%Si) filler wire yielded defect-free sound joints due to the presence of Si, which improves the flow ability of molten filler during welding. The Al/Mg dissimilar weld still produced the Mg-rich intermetallic (IM) Al12Mg17 and the Al-rich IM Al3Mg2. The surfaces of the fractured area of the CMT-welded Al/Mg dissimilar joints revealed the presence of the Mg-rich intermetallics (Al12Mg17), which is responsible for the decrease in tensile strength. The reduction of intermetallics, particularly of Mg-rich intermetallics (Al12Mg17) is important for improving joint strength.


  • Cold metal transfer (CMT) arc welding was used to control the Al-Mg-rich intermetallics in the Al/Mg dissimilar joints.
  • The microstructure, morphology and phase composition of the welded joints were studied by OM, SEM, TEM, EDS and XRD.
  • The weld metal and AL substrate are joined with a strong interface, while the weld metal and Mg substrate are joined with an epitaxial solidification area where the intermetallic compounds of Mg2Al3, Mg17Al12 and Mg2Si are generated.
  • The weld metal on the Mg side experienced a brittle fracture, with a continuous distribution of Mg2Al3, Mg17Al12 and Mg2Si.

Explanation of Research in Layperson’s Terms

Al and Mg alloys are extensively used as light metals in engineering due to their advantageous characteristics, including high strength-to-weight ratio, cheap casting costs, low density, excellent machinability, and simple recyclability. Often, each of these materials fails to meet the criteria for lightweight buildings. Consequently, there is a high need for a significant quantity of Al/Mg hybrid structures in many industrial sectors with a particular emphasis on the automotive industry. Choosing the appropriate filler material for joining Al and Mg is crucial for creating robust weldments. The main difficulty in welding dissimilar metals like aluminium and magnesium lies in the formation of inflexible and brittle intermetallic compounds (IMCs) like Mg2Al3 and Mg17Al12, which severely affect the joint’s strength. When it comes to melting points, magnesium is at 650°C and aluminium is at 660°C. Based on the Mg-Al binary phase diagram, the compounds Mg2Al3 and Mg17Al12 can be produced at 450 and 437°C by eutectic reaction. Hence, the primary challenge in Al/Mg dissimilar welding is effectively suppressing the growing number of IMCs. Similarly, minimising energy input and utilising the appropriate chemistry of wire are the primary methods for decreasing the formation of IMCs and improving joint strength.

CMT is an advanced arc welding process which comes under controlled short circuiting transfer mode. The CMT welding cycle consists of two phases, i.e. the arcing phase and short circuit phase. In arcing phase, the filler wire gets melted and it forms as a droplet at the tip of the filler wire. In short circuiting phase, the droplet bridges the gap between the electrode and the weld pool. Once the short circuiting takes place, the filler wire gets retracted backward due to the retraction force and the droplet is detached from the filler wire. In conventional short circuiting transfer mode, the electromagnetic pinch force assists in detaching the droplet from the filler wire and thereby high heat input is produced by means of the short current. Where as in CMT short circuit transfer mode, the welding current is decreased to a lower value whenever a short circuit signal is sensed by the power source and the droplet gets separated from the filler wire with the help of the retraction force that is generated during the backward movement of the filler wire. Finally, the heat input is reduced to a lower value with this metal transfer mode. So, the CMT arc welding process was used to join the 3 mm-thick rolled sheets of AA6061 Al and AZ31B Mg alloy dissimilar materials. This article details the microstructural characteristics of an Al/Mg dissimilar joint. The CMT process controlled IMCs in the Al/Mg dissimilar joint and increased weld metal hardness compared to base metal.

The title of Research Paper in the Citation Format

aAddanki Ramaswamy, *aBellamkonda Prasanna Nagasai, aMaheshwar Dwivedy, Sudersanan Malarvizhi, Visvalingam Balasubramanian, Metallurgical Characteristics of AA6061 Aluminium and AZ31B Magnesium Dissimilar Joints by Fusion Welding Technique, Microscopy research and technique, 2024. DOI: 10.1002/JEMT.24510.
Corresponding Author: Bellamkonda Prasanna Nagasai


Dr. V. Balasubramanian, Professor & Director, Centre for Materials Joining & Research (CEMAJOR) Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608002, Tamilnadu

Future Research Plans:

Planning to work on Fusion Welding (CMT, MIG, TIG, LASER, PLASMA and EBW) and Solid State Welding Processes (FSW, Rotary Friction Welding, Resistance Spot Welding, Magnetic Pulse Welding). Working on Additive Manufacturing (Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing on Metals, 3D Printing on Plastics), Cladding and Machinability. Characterisation, Tribology, and Corrosion. Steels and alloys, Aluminum, Nickel and Titanium Alloys.

In a significant academic accomplishment, Dr Ramanjaneya Reddy, Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, along with UG students Ms Mehataj Syed and Mr Busam Gopichand, have recently published a groundbreaking paper titled “A Three Leg Asymmetrical Voltage Resonant Converter with Independent Dimming Control for Multiple Load LED Lighting Applications” in the esteemed Q1 journal IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications. The journal boasts an impressive impact factor of 4.4, further underscoring the importance of this research contribution.

The paper delves into the development of a novel Three Leg Asymmetrical Voltage Resonant Converter that offers independent dimming control for multiple load LED lighting applications. This innovation holds great promise for enhancing the efficiency and versatility of LED lighting systems, paving the way for more sustainable and adaptable lighting solutions in various industrial applications.

Dr Ramanjaneya Reddy’s leadership and the collaborative efforts of Ms Mehataj Syed and Mr Busam Gopichand have culminated in this significant publication, which not only adds to the body of knowledge in the field but also showcases the talent and dedication of the researchers at the department.

This achievement highlights the commitment to excellence and innovation within the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, positioning it as a hub for cutting-edge research and academic prowess. The impact of this research is expected to reverberate across the industry, contributing to advancements in LED lighting technology and its applications.

The publication of this paper underscores the quality and rigour of the research solidifying their reputation as leaders in the field. This accomplishment is a testament to the department’s commitment to pushing boundaries and making meaningful contributions to the field of electrical engineering.

Congratulations to Dr Ramanjaneya Reddy, Ms Mehataj Syed, and Mr Busam Gopichand on this remarkable achievement, and we look forward to seeing the continued impact of their research in the field.


This work proposes a three-leg asymmetrical voltage resonant converter for multiple load Light Emitting Diode (LED) lighting applications. The proposed converter is developed with a common leg-1 for both load-1 and load-2. The load-1 is powered from asymmetrical voltage between leg-1 and leg-2. Similarly, load-2 is powered from asymmetrical voltage between leg-1 and leg-3. The proposed circuit provides the following major contributions: (1) Independent dimming control of LED loads; (2) Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS) of all power switches; (3) High efficiency; and (4) Asymmetrical voltage regulation. To achieve independent dimming control, the voltages between legs are made zero by dimming leg-2 and leg-3 independently. Two resonant circuits are connected in the proposed circuit. Owing to this all the power switches operate with ZVS, which reduces the switching losses. Further, two LED lamps are connected in series with battery sources to supply the threshold voltage to lamps which in turn results in a lower power processing of the converter.

Explanation of Research in Layperson’s Terms

This work proposes a three-leg asymmetrical voltage resonant converter with independent dimming control for multiple load LED lighting applications. The proposed converter drives multiple loads independently with a dimming feature. The converter is developed with leg-1 is common for both LED loads. The major contributions of the proposed LED driver are independent dimming control, asymmetrical voltage regulation, zero voltage switching of all the power switches, and high efficiency. The threshold voltage of LED loads is supplied by batteries connected in series with LED loads, which will help in lower power processing of the proposed converter. Further, due to soft switching technology implemented in this converter, it reduces the losses in the system considerably increasing efficiency.

Title of Research Paper in the Citation Format

A Three Leg Asymmetrical Voltage Resonant Converter with Independent Dimming Control for Multiple Load LED Lighting Applications.

Citation: Ramanjaneya Reddy Udumula, et. al, “A Three Leg Asymmetrical Voltage Resonant Converter with Independent Dimming Control for Multiple Load LED Lighting Applications,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Feb 2024. doi: 10.1109/TIA.2024.3363676

Practical and Social Implementation of Research

To achieve effective and efficient use of energy resources under the sustainable development goals, Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) have emerged as a global lighting industry solution. Over the conventional lighting sources such as incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, and high intensity discharge lamps, LEDs are i) more efficient, ii) eco-friendly due to absence of toxic gases, iii) have longer life span up to one lakh year, iv) high luminous intensity and v) good colour rendering index. LED’s requires low voltage direct current supply and the V-I characteristics of LEDs which is like Shockley diode represents the exponential growth of current over a small voltage variation which may damage the LED or effects the illumination. Hence, an LED driver is necessary in an LED system to supply LEDs with constant current. DC fed LED drivers are more reliable due to absence of AC-DC conversion stage and power factor correction stage which are crucial in AC fed LED drivers. Therefore, DC fed LED drivers are paid more attention in recent times in the majority of battery-powered/solar-powered applications. Given its features of high power, exceptional efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and flicker-free operation, this innovation is well-suited for streetlight/stadium lighting applications.


Dr. Kasi Ramakrishna Reddy, Assistant Professor
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Vasavi College of Engineering, Hyderabad

Future Research Plans

The future work is on PV/battery fed LED driver topologies suitable for streetlighting/stadium lighting applications with low component count, high efficiency, reduced device stress, and flicker free lighting system

Patent-PublishedIn a remarkable achievement, Dr Soni Wadhwa, Assistant Professor in the Department of Literature and Languages at SRM University-AP, and Ms Jintu Alias, a PhD Scholar, have made a significant contribution to the field of postcolonial studies with their paper titled “The rise (in the fall) of Cochin: Provincializing metropolitan spatiality in Salman Rushdie’s The Moor’s Last Sigh.”

The paper, published in the highly esteemed Journal of Postcolonial Writing offering a fresh perspective on Salman Rushdie’s acclaimed novel, “The Moor’s Last Sigh.” Through their insightful analysis, Dr Wadhwa and Alias challenge the conventional notions of metropolitan spatiality and provide a nuanced understanding of the provincial city of Cochin.

Dr Soni Wadhwa and Jintu Alias, a promising PhD Scholar, have meticulously analysed Rushdie’s The Moor’s Last Sigh, shedding light on the complex dynamics of metropolitan spatiality and the rise and fall of Cochin within the narrative.

Their research explores Rushdie’s portrayal of Cochin, challenging traditional notions of metropolitan spaces and offering a fresh perspective on the provincial nation of such spatialities. This groundbreaking analysis delves deep into the layers of cultural, historical, and socio-political contexts within Rushdie’s work, showcasing the authors’ keen insights and critical thinking.

The publication of this paper highlights the invaluable contributions of our faculty and scholars in the field of literature and postcolonial studies. It is a testament to the rigorous academic environment and the commitment to excellence fostered at SRM University-AP.

We extend our warmest congratulations to Dr Soni Wadhwa and  Jintu Alias for their remarkable achievement. Their dedication to research and passion for exploring the nuances of literature continue to inspire us all.

Explanation of the Research in Layperson’s Terms

Bombay/Mumbai is a great city widely celebrated in literature, especially for its cosmopolitanism. Salman Rushdie’s novel The Moor’s Last Sigh has been read by various critics for the richness of the portrayal of Mumbai. In their research, PhD scholar Jintu Alias and her PhD supervisor Dr Soni Wadhwa have analysed the representation of Cochin in the novel. Regarding their research they say, “For very long, Cochin’s presence has been eclipsed by that of Mumbai. But there is more to the novel than Bombay’s history. Like any art or literature, this novel is open to multiple interpretations. Our study is focused on the depiction of space in postcolonial literature with a focus on the island city Cochin in Kerala. When we immersed ourselves into the novel, we found that its charm is irresistible. Rushdie primarily opened a new city for other writers to explore. This novel was followed by several more novels that took an even closer look at the history of Cochin (now Kochi).”


Indian fiction and critical engagements with it have a metropolitan bias. The preference for representations of big cities such as Mumbai in fiction means that non-metropolitan (“provincial”) spaces in India face neglect, literary and otherwise. This article argues for provincialising Indian fiction by exploring non-metropolitan locations as imagined in works of fiction to unpack alternative spatiality. The example offered is Salman Rushdie’s The Moor’s Last Sigh. In most readings of the novel, Bombay (along with Moorish Spain) is highlighted as a metropolitan model for India. Cochin does not figure in these readings, which are passed over as if just a random background or setting for the characters to be launched into Mumbai. This article addresses Cochin’s marginalisation by investigating how the island city offers a provincial, alternative, non-metropolitan theorisation of spatialities in Indian fiction. The larger objective is to make space for similarly marginalised non-European locales in the discourse of cosmopolitanism.

Social Implications

  1. We hope that with this interpretation of the novel from the point of view of Cochin and its history and cosmopolitanism, smaller cities in India get more attention from literary critics.
  2. We also hope that our research excites further studies and creative writing on other aspects of cultural traditions practised in smaller cities in India. There are many more themes and historical and geographical settings to explore in Indian literature!

Future Research

In continuation of our method of reading different Kochi texts, we will engage with more novels in the future. Our previous reading of another Kochi novel was published in Modern Jewish Studies in September 2023. We look forward to strengthening this body of work in the future.

About This Collaboration

PhD scholar Ms Jintu Alias and Assistant Professor Dr Soni Wadhwa have been working on this area of the Kochi novel since May 2021. This has been an exciting spatiality project in the context of Indian literature.


Alias, J., & Wadhwa, S. (2024). The rise (in the fall) of Cochin: Provincializing metropolitan spatiality in Salman Rushdie’s The Moor’s Last Sigh. Journal of Postcolonial Writing, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1080/17449855.2024.2307408

TIMIn a landmark event that marked the first edition of “Trending Issues in Management,” Paari School of Business at SRM University-AP brought together a stellar lineup of industry stalwarts to delve into the transformative world of Artificial Intelligence (AI). The conference aimed at unravelling the complexities, exploring the opportunities, and addressing the challenges posed by AI in the ever-evolving landscape of modern management.

The event featured an elite panel of speakers, including Mr Sudhakar Vadapalli, Senior Vice President IT and Corporate Affairs, Biological E. Limited, Hyderabad, Saurabh Singh, Senior Vice President, Global Delivery Leader, Polestar Solutions, Delhi, Shriram Vasudevan (FIE, FIETE, SMIEEE), Technical Evangelist, Intel India Pvt Ltd, Bangalore, Laxminarayanan G, Global Head of Automation, Cyient, Bangalore, Karthiban Pandiyan MBB® PMP®, Leader Process Excellence, PwC India, Bangalore, and Ramya Sampathkumar, Independent Consultant and ex-Chief Digital Officer, Chennai.
They were joined by SRM AP’s esteemed members, Dr R Premkumar, Registrar, Prof. Bharadhwaj Sivakumaran, Dean of Paari School of Business, Dr CA Mahalakshmi Mudliar, and Mr Arun Prasad, offering a rich blend of theoretical insights and practical perspectives on AI’s impact on management.

Prof. Bharadhwaj Sivakumaran set the tone in his welcome speech, emphasising the school’s commitment to embedding Quality, Innovation, Customer-Centric Approach, and Ethics into its curriculum. “Our aim is to provide students with a contemporary education that is at the forefront of industry trends, particularly in AI and Blockchain, ensuring they are market-ready,” he stated.

Truly, considering the advent of technology in recent times, Paari school of Business is the first B-School in the country to include Artificial Intelligence and Blockchain as compulsory courses. It is also first in launching a Certificate Programme in Artificial Intelligence and Generative AI in Marketing.

Keynote speaker Sudhakar Vadapalli captivated the audience with his exploration of AI’s evolution, referencing Howard Gardner’s definition of intelligence and highlighting the rapid advancements leading to today’s sophisticated Large Language Models like ChatGPT. “The journey from Turing’s initial concepts to today’s AI showcases a trajectory towards an intelligence that might one day parallel human cognition,” Vadapalli remarked.

The subsequent panel discussion was a deep dive into AI’s role in reshaping management, highlighting the technology’s potential to enhance efficiency, innovate decision-making processes, and foster continuous learning and adaptation. Yet, the experts also cautioned about the challenges, particularly concerning data privacy, security, and the ethical use of AI.

The consensus among the panellists was clear: AI is not a fleeting trend but a fundamental shift reshaping the business landscape. Embracing this change requires new skills, such as Prompt Engineering and a proactive approach to the ongoing developments in AI technologies.

This seminal event underscored the importance of AI in contemporary management and positioned the Paari School of Business as a pioneering institution committed to integrating cutting-edge technologies into its academic fabric, preparing a new generation of leaders ready to navigate the AI-driven future.