Prof. C Durga Rao

Department of Biological Sciences


  1. Molecular Virology
  2. Molecular Biology & Cell Biology
  3. Recombinant DNA technology, Vaccines and Diagnostics



Aligarh Muslim University
B.Sc. (Hons) (Chemistry)


Aligarh Muslim University
M.Sc. (Biochemistry)


Indian Institute of Science
Ph. D. (Microbiology)


  • 1988-1993 - Assistant Professor | Indian Institute of Science
  • 1993-1999 - Associate Professor | Indian Institute of Science
  • 1999-2016 - Professor | Indian Institute of Science
  • 2005-2008 - Chairman |Department of Microbiology & Cell Biology, IISc
  • 2016-2019 - INSA Senior Scientist | Indian Institute of Science
  • 2019 - Professor | SRM University AP, Amaravati.

Research Interest

  • Biology of Rotavirus: Epidemiology, Molecular biology and molecular basis of pathogenesis of Rotavirus: structure and function of rotavirus nonstructural proteins, virus replication, and vaccines
  • Biology of human Enteroviruses: Enteroviruses in acute flaccid paralysis and acute diarrhea’ hand-foot-and mouth disease and mechanism of pathogenesis, diagnostics
  • Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression: Role of AU-rich Element binding proteins in rotaviral mRNA translation, and cellular RNA splicing and polyadenylation.


  • 2010, 1982 - M. Sreenivasaya Medal for best thesis in Microbiology and Cell Biology, Indian Institute of Science.
  • 2010, 1989-92- Rockefeller Foundation Biotechnology Career Fellowship.
  • 2010, 1990-99- Recipient of Indo-US Vaccine Action Program grants for Rotavirus research and vaccine development.
  • 2010, 1999-2004- Recipient of Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation grant for rotavirus vaccine, development
  • 2010, 1989 - Technology Transfer Award, NIH, USA.
  • 2010, 1990-93 - Visiting Scientist- Stanford University, USA, 2-3 months each year
  • 2010, 1997-2001 & 2008-09 - Visiting Professor, Mount Sinai Medical School, New York, USA, 3 months duration each year.
  • 2010, 2003 - National Biotechnology Award for Process and Product Development, Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India.
  • 2010, 2006 - Prof. C. R. Krishnamurti Lecture Award, Society of Biological Chemists (I).
  • 2010, 2010 - Prof. J. V. Bhat Endowment Oration- Manipal University, Manipal.
  • 2010, 2016 - Courage Fund Invited Speaker: Hand Foot and Mouth disease symposium, Singapore, July 24-26.
  • 2010, 2018 - Complete Travel grant from the Organizers of 13th dsRNA virus symposium held at Houffalize, Belgium during Sept. 24-28, 2018.

Fellowships, Memberships

  • Fellowship/Membership of Professional bodies/National services
  • Fellow, National Academy of Sciences (NASI).
  • Fellow, Indian National Science Academy (INSA)
  • Fellow, Andhra Pradesh Academy of Sciences, (APAS)
  • Member, Executive Committee of Biological Chemists, India (1990-present).
  • Vice president, Society of Biological Chemists, India, 2006-2008.
  • Member, Society of Biological Chemists (India)
  • Member, Indian Society of Cell Biology
  • Member, Indian Association for Cancer Research
  • Member, Guha Research Conference
  • Member, RNA Society, USA
  • Member, American Society for Microbiology, USA
  • Coordinator, University Grants Commission National Resource Networking Center with Rs. 1000 lakhs budget at IISc from 2009-2016
  • Member, Vaccines and Diagnostics Task Force, DBT, 2005-2007
  • Member, Infectious Disease Biology Task Force, DBT, 2009-2013
  • Member, Innovative Young Biotechnology Award (IYBA) Task Force, DBT, 2008-present.
  • Member, BIRAC & BIPP Technical Committees and Task Force ,DBT, 2010-present
  • Chairman, India-UK Welcome Trust-BIRAC Task Force, 2015
  • Editorial Board member of International Journal: Open Virology Journal
  • Member, SAC, NICED, Kolkata, 2016-present
  • Member Board of Studies. Central University of Tamil Nadu-Tiruvarur, 2018-
  • Selection Committees of other Institutions and IISc:
  • Member, Selection Committee for Faculty recruitment, Goa University, Goa.
  • Member, Selection committee for Faculty recruitment: IIT Kharaghpur
  • Member, selection Committee for Readers, Cochin University, Cochin
  • Member, Selection Committee for Faculty Recruitment, JNTU, Hyderabad
  • Member, Selection Committee for Faculty Recruitment, SV University, Tirupati
  • Member, Board of Studies, Dept of Virology, SV University, Tirupati
  • Member, Board of Studies, Mysore University, Dept. of Botany & Microbiology, Mysore
  • Member, Institutional Committee for Scientific Staff Evaluation 1999-2001
  • Chairman, Committee for Scientific Staff Evaluation,IISc,  2002-2013

List of Important Publications

    • Homologous terminal sequences of the genome double stranded RNAs of bluetongue virus. Rao, C.D., Kiuchi, A., Roy, P. J. Virol. 46, 378-383 (1983).
    • Complete sequence of bluetonguevirus L2 RNA that codes for the antigen recognized by neutralizing antibodies. Purdy, M.A., Ghiasi, H., Rao, C.D., Roy, P. J. Virol. 55, 826-830 (1985).
    • Structure and sequence of the human c-SIS/platelet-derived growth factor 2 (SIS/PDGF) transcriptional unit. Rao, C.D., Igarashi, H., Chiu, I.M., Robbins, K.C., Aaronson, S.A. PNAS, USA, 83, 2392-2396 (1986).
    • Detection of SIS/PDGF 2 homodimers in human tumor cells. Igarashi, H., Rao, C.D., Siroff, M., Leal, F., Robbins, K.C., Aaronson, S.A. Oncogene, 1,79-85 (1987).
    • Primary structure of the human fgr proto-oncogene product p55c-fgr . Katamine, S., Notario, V., Rao, C.D., Miki, K., Cheah, M.S.C., Tronick, S.R.,Robbins, K.C. Mol. Cell Biol. 8, 259-266 (1988).
    • The 5' untranslated sequence of the c-SIS/platelet-derived growth factor 2 transcript is a potent translational inhibitor. Rao, C.D., Pech, M., Robbins, K.C., Aaronson, S.A. Mol. Cell Biol. 8, 284-292 (1988).
    • Sequence analysis of dbl cDNA predicts a novel oncogene product. Eva, A., Vecchio, G., Rao, C.D., Tronick, S.R., Aaronson, S.A. PNAS, USA, 85, 2061-2065, (1988).
    • Functional identification of regulatory elements within the promoter region of platelet-derived growth factor-2. Pech, M.W., Rao, C.D., Robbins, K.C., Aaronson, S.A. Mol. Cell Biol. 9, 396-405, 1989.
    • Exclusive asymptomatic neonatal infections by human rotavirus strains having subgroup I specificity and `long' RNA electropherotype. Sukumaran, M., Gowda, K., Maiya, P.P., Srinivas, T.P., Kumar, M.S., Aizaz, S., Reddy, R.R., Pudilla-Noreiga, L., Greenberg, H.B., Rao, C.D. Arch. Virol. 126, 239-252. (1992).
    • Serotypic and genotypic characterization ofhuman serotype 10 rotaviruses from asymptomatic neonates.Dunn, S.J., Greenberg, H.B., Ward, R.L., Nakagomi, O., Burns, J.W., Vo, P.T., Pax, K.A., Das, M., Gowda, K., Rao, C.D. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31, 165-169 (1993).
    • Both surface proteins (VP4 and VP7) of an asymptomatic neonatal rotaviurs strain (I321) have high levels of sequence identity with the homologous proteins of a serotype 10 bovine rotavirus. Das, M., Dunn, S.J., Woode, G.N., Greenberg, H.B., Rao, C.D. Virology 194, 374-379 (1993).
    • Comparative nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis of the sequence-specific RNA-binding rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP3. Rao, C.D., Das, M., Ilango, P., Lalwani, P., Rao, B.S., Gowda, K. Virology 207, 327-333 (1995).
    • Nucleotide sequence and expression in E. coli of the complete P4 type VP4 from a G2 serotype human rotavirus. Mahajan, N.P., Rao, C.D. Arch. Virol. 141, 315-329 (1996).
    • Epidemiology of symptomatic human rotaviruses in Bangalore and Mysore, India, from 1988 to 1994 as determined by electropherotype, subgroup and serotype analysis. Aijaz, S., Gowda, K., Jagannath, H.V., Reddy, R.R., Maiya, P.P., Ward, R.L., Greenberg, H.B., Raju, M., Ananda Babu, M., Rao, C.D. Arch. Virol. 141, 715-726 (1996).
    • Characterization of human symptomatic rotavirus isolates MP409 and MP480 having ‘long’ RNA electropherotype and subgroup I specificity, highly related to the P6[1],G8 type bovine rotavirus A5, from Mysore, India. Jagannath, M.R., Vedanayagam, R., Raman, S., Rao, C.D. Arch. Virol. 145, 1339-1357 (2000).
    •  Sequence analysis of VP4 and VP7 genes of nontypeable strains identifies a new pair of outer capsid proteins representing novel P and G genotypes in bovine rotaviruses. Rao, C.D., Gowda, K., B. S. Y. Reddy. Virology 276, 104-113 (2000).
    • Prevalence of, and antigenic variation in serotype G10 rotaviruses and detection of serotype G3 strains in diarrheic calves: Implications for the origin of G10P11 or P11 type reassortant asymptomatic strains in newborn children in India. Varshney, B., Jagannath, M.R., Vethanayagam, R.R., Kodhandharaman, S.,
      Jagannath,H.V., Gowda, K., Singh, D.K., Rao, C.D. Arch. Virol. 147, 143-165 (2002).
    • Possible role of neonatal infection with the asymptomatic reassortant rotavirus (RV) strain I321 in the decrease in hospital admissions for RV diarrhoea, Bangalore, India, 1988-1999. Vethanayagam, R.r., Ananda Babu, M., Nagalaxmi, K.S., Maiya, P.P., Venkatesh, H.A., Purohit, S., Behl, R., Bhan, M.K., Ward, R.L., Greenberg, H.B., Rao, C.D. J. Infect. Dis. 189, 2282-2289 (2004).
    • Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the diarrhea-causing and virulence-determining region of rotaviral nonstructural protein NSP4. Deepa, R., Jagannath, M.R., Kasavulu, M.M., Rao, C.D., Suguna, K. Crystallographica Acta. D60, 135-136 (2004)..
    • Development of candidate rotavirus vaccines in India derived from neonatal strains.
      Glass, R.I., Bhan, M.K., Ray, P., Bahl, R., Parashar, U., Greenberg, H.B., Rao, C.D.,
      Bhandari, N., Maldonado, Y., Ward, R.L., Bernstein, D.I., Gentsch, J.R. J. Infect. Dis. 192, S30-35, 2005.
    • N- and C-terminal cooperation in rotavirus enterotoxin:Novel mechanism of modulation of the properties of a multifunctional protein by a structurally and functionally overlapping conformational domain. Jagannath, M.R., Kesavulu, M.M., Deepa, R., Sastri, N.P., Senthil Kumar, S., Suguna, K., Rao, C.D. J. Virol. 80, 412-425. (2006).
    • Safety and immunogenicity of two live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine candidates, 116E and I321, in infants: results of a randomized controlled trial. Bhandari, N., Sharma, P., Roger, R.I., Ray, P., Greenberg, H.B., Taneja, S., Saksena, M., Rao, C.D., Gentsch, J.R., Parashar, U., Maldonado, Y., Ward, R.L., Bhan, M.K. Vaccine 24, 5817-582 (2006).
    • Structure of the extended diarrhoea-inducing domain of rotavirus enterotoxigenic protein NSP4. Deepa, R., Rao, C.D., Suguna, K. Arch. Virol. 152, 847-859. (2007).
    • The flexible C terminus of the rotavirus non-structural protein NSP4 is an important determinant of its biological properties. Rajasekaran, D., Sastri, N.P., Jagannath, M.R., Indi, S.S., Kiranmayee, P., Suguna, K., Rao, C.D. J Gen Virol. 89, 1485-1496 (2008).
    • Translational up-regulation and high-level protein expression from plasmid vectors by mTOR activation via different pathways in PC3 and 293T cells. Karyala, P., Nima, N.D., Rao, C. D. PLoS ONE 5(12): e14408.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014408, (2010).
    •  Conformational differences unfold the wide range of enterotoxigenic abilities
      exhibited by rNSP4 peptides from different rotavirus strains. Sastri, N. P., Kiranmayee, P., Jagannath, M.R., Suguna, K., and Rao, C. D. The Open Virology J. 5: 113-124 (2011).
    • Novel pentameric structure of the diarrhea-inducing region of the rotavirus enterotoxigenic protein NSP4. Chacko, A. R., Arifullah, M., Sastri, N. P., Jeyakanthan, J., Ueno, G., Sekar, K., Read, R. J., Dodson, E. J., Rao, C. D.,* and Suguna, K.*. J. Virol. 85:12721-12732 (2011).
    • Antigenic diversity of enteroviruses associated with non-polio acute flaccid paralysis, India, 2007- 2009. Rao, C. D., Yergolkar, P. and Shankarappa. K S. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 18:1833-1840 (2012).
    •  Non-polio enteroviruses and their association with acute diarrhea in children in India Rao, C. D., Anandababu, M., Raghavendra, A., Dhananjaya, D., Sudheendra, K., Maiya, P. P. Infect. Genetics Evol. 17:153-161 (2013).
    • Non-polio enterovirus association with persistent diarrhea in children as revealed by a follow-up study of an Indian cohort during the first two years of life. Rao, C. D., Reddy, H., Sudheendra, K., Raghavendra, A., Vembuli, V., Surekha, E., Ramya, G., Bharat, H. R., Rao A. S. R., Maiya P. P. and Ananda Babu M. J. Clin. Virol. 61:125-131. DOI: 10.1016/j.j.c.v.2014.05.015 (2014).
    • Non-diarrheal increased Frequency of bowel movements (IFoBM-ND): Enterovirus association with the symptoms in children. Rao, C. D., Maiya P. P. and Ananda Babu M. BMJ Open Gastroenterol. 1:e000011. Doi:10.1136/ bmjgast-2014-000011 (2014).
    • Non-polio enteroviruses, the neglected, and emerging human pathogens: are we waiting for the sizzling enterovirus volcano to erupt? Rao, C. D. Proc. Indian Natl. Sci. Acad. 81: 441-562 (2015).
    • An enzyme-linked immune focus assay for rapid detection and enumeration, and a newborn mouse model for human non-polio enteroviruses associated with acute diarrhea. Rao C. D., Reddy H., Naidu, J. R., Raghavendra, A., Radhika, N. S., and Karande, A. J. Virol. Methods 224, 47-52 (2015).
    • Large-scale HFMD epidemics caused by coxsackievirus A16 in Bangalore, India during 2013 and 2015. Rao C. D., Jagadish R. Naidu., Maiya P. P., Ananda babu, A., and Bailly, J-L. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 55, 228-235 (2017).
    • New tetrameric forms of the rotavirus NSP4 with antiparallel helices. Sushant Kumar, Raghavendra Ramappa, Kiranmayee Pamidimukkala, C.D. Rao, K, Suguna. Archives of virology 163, 1531-1547 (2018).
    • Cytoplasmic re-localization and colocalization with viroplasms of host cell proteins, and their role in rotavirus infection. Dhillon, P., Varsha N Tandra, Sandip G Chorghade, Nima D Namsa., Lipika Sahoo and Rao, C. D., J. Virology 92, e00612.18 (2018).
    • Rotavirus induces formation of atypical stress granules and P-bodies and their sequestration in viroplasms to promote progeny virus production. Dhillon, P., and Rao C. D., J. Virology 92, e01363-18 (2018).
    • Detecting Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus Causing Ridge Gourd Yellow Mosaic Disease, and Other Begomoviruses by Antibody Based Methods. Naganur, P.; Shankarappa, K.S.; Mesta, R.K.;  Rao, C.D.; Venkataravanappa, V.; Maruthi, M.N.; Reddy, L.R.C.N.. Plants, 12, 490, (2023).

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