Supercapacitor electrodes for enhanced energy storage

super capacitor electrodes

The Department of Physics is happy to announce that Prof Ranjit Thapa and his PhD Scholar Mr Samadhan Kapse have published a paper titled “Supercapacitor electrodes based on quasi-one-dimensional van der Waals TiS3 nanosheets: experimental findings and theoretical validation” in the Nature indexed journal ‘Applied Physics Letters’ having an impact factor of 3.79. The Paper is published in collaboration with Abhinandan Patra and Chandra Sekhar Rout from Jain University and Dattatray J Late from Amity University.

Abstract of the Research

To cease the ever-increasing energy demand, additional enthusiastic focus has been given to generate more sustainable energy from alternative renewable sources. The storage of these energies for future usage solely depends on the energy storage devices. A diversity of electrode materials based on two-dimensional (2D) transition metals and their derivatives have enticed the whole world owing to their tunable properties. Transition metal trichalcogenides (TMTCs- MX3 type) is the emergent class of 2D materials that gathered a lot of interest because of their quasi-one-dimensional anisotropic properties with the van der Waals force of attraction in between the layers. Herein, TiS3 being an MX3-type of material is preferred as the electrode for supercapacitor application with detailed experimental investigations and theoretical validation. The highest capacitance attained for TiS3 is found to be 235 F/g (105 C/g) at 5 mV/s with a battery type of charge storage mechanism. The asymmetric device is fabricated using Ti3C2Tx MXene nanosheets as negative electrode and a brilliant 91 % of capacitance retention is accomplished with an extensive potential window of 1.5 V. The investigational discoveries are substantiated by theoretical simulation in terms of the quantum capacitance assessment and charge storage mechanisms.

About the Research

In this work, a battery type TMTC material i.e., TiS3 has been synthesized and characterized by different analytical techniques such as Raman spectroscopy, FESEM and TEM to gain information on its structural and morphological aspects. The electrochemical performance was found to be promising by considering its good energy storage performance. High capacitance of 235 F/g (105 C/g) at 5 mV/s was achieved and the asymmetric supercapacitor devices disclosed outstanding cycling stability of 91 % over 6000 GCD cycles. In addition, the theoretical simulations also validated the experimental findings through the evaluation of the quantum capacitance. The higher conductivity, abundant electrochemical active sites, swift faradic redox kinetics and well-connected pathway for ion transfer characteristics pave the way for TiS3 to emerge as an eminent material for energy storage application in the long run.

Social Implications

Energy storage devices come into picture whenever there is a prerequisite of storing renewable energy. Among the numerous energy storage devices, batteries and ultracapacitors have acquired more popularity in nanotechnology and optoelectronics field. The high stability, accuracy, swift functionality, power density and reversibility are the key factors that have positioned ultracapacitors at the forefront of all energy storage devices. On the contrary, the low energy density and high cost of supercapacitor electrodes try to put them in the back seat of the wheels of the energy industry. Henceforth, in recent times the development of supercapattery (abbreviated for supercapacitor and battery) types of materials has become a way out which tie the aces like high specific power of supercapacitors with the high energy density of batteries. These materials exhibit capacitive or battery type behaviour on the basis of materials properties, electrolytic ions, design of the electrochemical cell. Due to these advantages and superior energy storage performance, the demand for this kind of material is growing.

Theoretical quantum capacitance is an important parameter to investigate the supercapacitor performance of low dimensional materials such as electrodes. This approach is highly cost-effective for the rapid screening of various materials for supercapacitor applications.

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