Enabling accurate and cost-efficient ways to conduct a market survey

SRM University AP, Andhra Pradesh Next Tech Lab student churns out the opportunity to exhibit her acumen at ETHDenver Hackathon 2020. Vyshnavi G, 3rd year, Computer Science and Engineering student, nurtures her coding skills, and emerged triumphant by winning the ETH Denver Hackathon 2020. This hackathon focuses on supporting and building the future technology. The hackathon was conducted at Denver with 500 participants. Vyshnavi G also received a bounty of $500 from SKALE and $500 from Chainlink for the project. The project provides value to Dapp creators by improving understanding of their position and deploying inexpensive ways to gather competitive intel. This application ensures security and is developed using blockchain technology.

Vyshnavi G explains, “A Dapp stores data in a decentralized database and uses decentralized computing resources to work. In a trustless environment, the user needs to be able to verify the kind of application and its working to prevent scam and malware, as well as to protect personal data and assets. Therefore, companies such as Chainlink and Skale that uses blockchain technology, provided the user analytics of their Dapp and expected participants to generate ideas to improve the companies’ market strategy. Our application collects information about the users, and the application can be implemented by any Dapp creator in every industry, be it gaming, exchanges etc.”

The project of Vyshnavi G provides Dapp creators with important metrics about their users. It gives information regarding the time spent by users on competitors’ app, contacts that the users are interacting with, count of unique users, and the count of loyal users of the competitors. “There are many Dapps in the market which offers the information about the user analytics of Dapp. However, they restrict to presenting data pertaining to a single industry whereas, our app mitigates this limitation by offering data source to be used by multiple industries.”, Vyshnavi G explains the uniqueness of the project. When asked regarding her take away from the Hackathon, Vyshnavi G says, “ The ETH Denver Hackathon 2020 gives a brilliant opportunity to work alongside the developers, thought leaders, advisers, and companies who are making the infrastructure and applications that will empower the industries in the future.”

Remarkable research of Dr. Tousif Khan N is honoured with APJ Abdul Kalam Memorial International Travel Award

SRM University AP, Andhra Pradesh faculty, Dr. Tousif Khan N, Assistant Professor and Head of the Department, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, is to present a paper “Laguerre Neural Network Driven Adaptive Control of DC-DC Step Down Converter” in the renowned International Federation for Automatic Control (IFAC) World Congress to be held in Germany during July 12-17, 2020. Further this research article is also selected for the prestigious APJ Abdul Kalam Memorial International Travel Award by the Automatic Control and Dynamic Optimization Society (ACDOS) chaired by Professor Ravi Gudi of Indian Institute of Technology Bombay.

The research work of Dr. Tousif proposes a novel Laguerre neural network estimation technique for the approximation of unknown and uncertain load function, followed by its subsequent compensation in the adaptive backstepping controller. A detailed design of the proposed estimator and adaptive backstepping controller along with closed loop asymptotic stability have been presented. Further, the proposed control mechanism is evaluated through extensive numerical simulations while subjecting the converter to input voltage, reference voltage, and load resistance perturbations. Furthermore, the results are verified by testing the proposed controller on a laboratory prototype with DSP based TM320F240 controller board. The analysis of results reveals that the proposed control methodology for DC-DC step down converter offers a faster transient output voltage tracking with smooth and satisfactory inductor current response over a wide operating range. Dr. Tousif informs, “Under the class of DC-DC converters, the dynamics of DC-DC step down converter are nonlinear in nature and are largely influenced by both parametric and unanticipated external perturbations. In its closed loop operation, obtaining a precise output voltage tracking besides satisfactorily inductor current response is a challenging control objective. Hence, in this regard, this article proposes a solution.”

Electric power supply is the principal entity behind any electrical circuits and systems. Irrespective of their function in the digital domain, these circuits necessarily require a reliable and efficient energy source for their operations. Among the two existing forms of electrical energy, namely, the direct current (DC) and the alternating current (AC), the DC power finds wide use in numerous applications in the field of telecommunication, instrumentation, medical electronics, aerospace, defence and power transmission.

Ever since the fundamental innovations in DC systems by Thomas Alva Edison in 1880, DC rectification, and modulation method have remained central to various utilities. During the initial years, DC power conversion primarily resorted to the use of vacuum tube technology in delivering a desirable level of voltage from an AC source. The rectification stage was subsequently followed by filtering of the voltage at the output end. Nonetheless, the vacuum tube technology supported very low current density and featured a high ripple content in the DC voltage. Additionally, the output voltage was inconsistent or rather unregulated, making it inappropriate for DC power operated electrical and electronic systems. Much later in 1967, integrated series regulators were developed which eventually became popular as linear power supplies (LPS). Such a classical DC power generation method involved an AC transformer, AC-DC rectifier, and a voltage regulator in its assembly. The transistors in LPS operate under active region and dissipate large amounts of heat due to the voltage drop while high current flows through the collector-emitter junction, thereby causing substantial power loss and a very low energy efficiency. Even though they characterize the low level of noise and find better suitability in audio applications, yet their critical limitations of huge size, heavy weight and high cost make them infeasible for use in portable electronic devices.

In tandem to these aforementioned developments, the advancements in power semiconductor technology led to the invention of low cost reliable power switches exhibiting fast switching response. This proved to be instrumental in building an energy efficient switched mode power supply which gradually gained popularity. “Its impact on electrical technology was phenomenal, replacing conventional linear voltage supplies with switched mode power supplies giving rise to enhanced efficiency, light weight, compactness, and comparably lower cost. Such a modern DC conversion system primarily includes DC-DC converters, wherein the rectified input voltage is fed to the DC-DC converter circuits for obtaining specific voltage levels. The primary objective in DC-DC converters is to transfer the energy among different DC circuits functioning at a specific voltage and current levels. This process of energy transfer is performed by temporarily storing the energy from the input source in an operating mode, followed by releasing it in the other operational mode of the converter. Thus, one level of DC input voltage is converted to another level of average DC output voltage at the load end. Meanwhile, the converter being ideal is expected to consume no energy. Any consumption of energy in the converter interface amounts to direct power loss in the overall supply system. Typically, converters render high input-output conversion.”, enlightens Dr. Tousif Khan N. His notable research work offers to mitigate these issues, leading to the venerated APJ Abdul Kalam Memorial International Travel Award. Advancing his work in the future, Dr. Tousif will be closely working on the society’s activities with ACDOS as a member for mutual benefit.

Using spices, SRM AP student creates a life-size painting to win the Guinness World Record title

Tatineni Sreya, a first year Electronics and Communication Engineering student of SRM University AP, Andhra Pradesh, became the cynosure of all eyes at the Tech Fest held at the university campus in September 2019.

Life-size painting using spicesCoinciding with the valedictory session of a two-day Tech Fest hosted by the university’s management at the campus, Sreya attracted eyeballs by painting on a 588 square feet canvas in a span of 4 hours and 15 minutes using spices (turmeric powder and vermilion). The feat was recorded in the presence of a panel of jury to claim a place for Sreya in the Guinness Book of World Records. On Wednesday, her painting reached the pinnacle when the Guinness World Records Committee sent an e-mail to the university ownership announcing that the title has been awarded to Sreya. The Cherian Committee has broadcasted that the World Records will be awarded in recognition of the wellbeing of the student. The World Record title certificate will be issued soon.

Sreya started the painting of a little girl standing on a cliff and absorbing in the beauty of the rising sun, at 11.30 a.m. and concluded the act exactly at 3.45 p.m. “The painting is about a girl rejoicing freedom mimicking my emotion after I was done with my stressful high school days. While dealing with the pressure at school, I wanted to prove that zeal and passion can steer one to achieve monumental achievements. “, explains Sreya.

Sreya working on the painting

Sreya applied to Guinness Book of World Records in January when she was preparing for her high school finals and was searching for a UG college to get into. Sreya narrates, “I finally got into SRM AP in June and was adjusting to the new surroundings and environment when we had a Tech Fest meeting. We were asked to speak about ourselves. I informed my fellow students and the professors regarding my application to Guinness Book of World Records and knack for painting. It was proposed by one of the faculty members during a meeting that I should attempt on the painting during the Tech Fest. Although it was challenging to balance academics, Tech Fest activities, and other club activities, along with gearing up for the attempt, I was able to build upon the planning in a short span of time with my parents and friends supporting me.”

 

On the culminating day, Architect T. Ramakrishna, after measuring the exact size of the painting and other aspects stipulated by the Record Book, recorded the ‘surveyor’s statement.’ K. Manohar from Vijayawada Food Testing Laboratory analyzed and certified the products used in the painting while Police Officials P.V.R.K. Prasad and Ravi, Chartered Accountant Krishna Reddy and Advocate Rami Reddy, sat through to witness the act and made their observations.

Sreya’s successful attempt Immediately after she finished the painting, Sreya’s friends greeted her with cheers and lifted her on their shoulders. On Wednesday, the Tech Fest Committee 2019 proudly declared, “One of our committee member Sreya Tatineni’s attempt for Guinness World record is successful. She won the Guinness world record in Largest Spice painting.” Dr. Sathyanarayanan, the President of the University, Prof. Narayana Rao, Pro Vice-Chancellor, and Dr. D. Gunasekaran, Registrar congratulated Sreya for this efficacious attempt. Dr. D Gunasekaran applauds Sreya saying. “Ms Sreya Tatineni has secured an immaculate place in the Guinness World Records for the largest spice painting done during the Techfest 2019. Special thanks to her parents. SRMAP is proud of Sreya. Thanks to the Techfest Organizing Committee 2019 for making this happen.”

Sreya says “I was in happy tears after my attempt was done as I got the picture that I planned of. My family, friends, and my professors at SRM AP were very supportive and encouraged me in all the phases related to this attempt. To be honest, receiving this humongous award from Guinness Book of World Records is the proudest and happiest moment of my life till date. Getting into Guinness Book of World Records is never a small thing. It will be one of the biggest days in my life that I will cherish forever. In the future, I hope to make an attempt at something different.”

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During the unprecedented crisis, when the world is slowly falling into despair, the talented students of SRM University- AP are using the time for brainstorming and innovation. Attesting the signs of a true researcher, P. Mohan Aditya, a 2nd – year Mechanical Engineering student, represents the future generation well by developing a highly useful face shield that costs less than a plate of snacks.

Aditya with his ‘Face Shield 2.0’Mr Aditya has named it “Face Shield 2.0”. The face shield is very lightweight, easy to wear, comfortable yet durable. It protects a person’s entire face from hazards with a thin layer of transparent plastic film that serves as an outer defence. It is a protective equipment to guard the face against exposure to the potentially infectious materials. This face shield is biodegradable as the headband is made of cardboard(paper) which is 100% degradable material and the plastic can be reused. The Face Shield comes only at a price of INR 15.

The Face Shield 2.0 was manufactured using the CNC (Computer Numerical Controlled) machine through which Aditya designed a headband, and the shape of the transparent plastic film was created using CAD (Computer-Aided Design) software. “I gave this CAD model as an input to the CNC machine. Now the CNC machine software analysed the CAD model and started to cut the cardboard and transparent sheet according to the drawing provided as an input. Thus, I managed to bring down the production time for manufacturing and assembling the Face shield in less than 2minutes,” explained Aditya. A 3 Ply Corrugated Cardboard Sheet had been used in making the headband so that the headband becomes durable, comfortable and lightweight. The Bursting Strength of the Cardboard sheet is 16kg/sq.cm. A thick 175-micron transparent plastic sheet has been placed over the headband to protect the person against the virus. This also forms a barrier that keeps people from easily touching their faces. The transparent film also helps in allowing the visibility of facial expressions and lip movements for speech perception.

CNC Machine

The other innovative features of the face shield are – a cushioning type of structure has been attached to the headband so that the person wearing it for a long time does not get strained. This structure helps the person to wear the face shield comfortably. By providing the elastic band to this face shield, any person with different head circumferences can wear it easily.

Wearing this ‘Face Shield 2.0’ will help the police, medical personnel, municipal workers, people working in sanitizing department, people working in the essential goods sector by not getting infected by the virus. It can also be used by virus-infected patients so that the chance of spreading the virus to a healthy person can be decreased. Moreover, several lakhs of students of schools, colleges and universities could use the Face Shield 2.0 when they come back to the educational institutions after the lockdown is lifted.

Machine processing a cardboard Mohan Aditya always wanted to make a difference. So, when he read in many articles and newspapers that there is a huge shortage of the PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) in the world, the idea of making a face shield crossed his mind. “I thought to make a face shield which is 100% biodegradable, low in cost and also gives protection to the facial area and associated mucous membranes (Eyes, Nose, Mouth) which are the possible entries for a virus to infect people,” said Aditya.

Mohan Aditya wants to be a successful engineer in life. He is very passionate about making useful gadgets. His previous endeavour with his team successfully ended up in making an Electric bicycle by using a 24V 250Watt DC motor powered a 12V and 12Ah battery. At present, they are working on the retrofit of an old IC Bike into brand new Electric Bike. Our young engineer P. Mohan Aditya truly one of those people whom the future world can rely upon.

Dr. Panchagunula Jayaprakash designs an improved alternative to regular masks

Dr. Panchagunula Jayaprakash, Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, has designed a FACE SHIELD embedded with 3D printing technology. During this pandemic that has led to an unprecedented global crisis, this face protection devised to protect users from the Novel Coronavirus, is made available at the minimum rate of Rs. 20 each. The major drawback of the commercially available Face Shields for engineering applications is its heavy weight which causes discomfort if worn for a longer period of time. This face mask that uses 3D printing technology alleviates the limitations of the regular masks currently used by doctors, policemen, and journalists.

Head mounted Face Sheild


“With the advent of Covid-19, and due to the shortage of personal protective equipment, the health workers such as Doctors, Sanitary staff and Police are also getting infected. As they are the backbone of the society, I thought of designing a light weight Face Shield using 3D Printing (3DP) or Additive Manufacturing technique. The rudimentary advantages of 3D printing technology is the design flexibility and less lead time to manufacturing. “, explains Dr. Jayaprakash.

Creation of CAD model

3D Printing


The regular masks barely cover the nose and mouth, whereas the Face Shield will be able to protect the eyes, mouth, nose, and ears so that one cannot get infected by the virus. Some of the medical and police personnel who use the regular masks suffer from facial irritation, making the Face Shield a comfortable and more effective alternative for all government officials on Covid-19 duty.

Physical component


Dr. Jayapraksh further says, “While manufacturing the Face Shield, 3D printing technology is used for designing a headband, upon which a 100 micron thick transparent plastic sheet is attached to ensure superior protection against the virus. It prevents air, dust, and liquids that are contaminated to come in contact with people. Also, there are no probable side effects on using the mask. If the government approves of its marketing, the face mask can be distributed among the public to prevent the widespread of Novel Coronavirus.”

OHP sheet assembly


The management of SRM AP, Andhra Pradesh applauds Dr. Jayaprakash on designing the mask after relentlessly working on it for several days. Prof. Narayana Rao, Pro Vice-Chancellor of the University, has written to Adimulapu Suresh, Minister of Education, Andhra Pradesh, and Alla Kalikrishna Srinivas, Deputy Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, Minister for Health, Family Welfare and Medical Education, Andhra Pradesh, highlighting the importance of the facial cover and the many ways it can be regarded as a boon to the society as a whole. He said that the Face Shield would be beneficial to millions of students who would be attending regular classes once the educational institutions reopen.

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The unstoppable team of Next-Tech Lab of SRM University- AP, has again brought laurels to the University by winning three hackathons in a row. During this lockdown while some devoted their time to newfound hobbies, our young researchers successfully developed a fresh multiplayer virtual reality game – ‘Whack A Mole’ and a cloud-based multiplayer FPS in Virtual Reality- ‘Desert Shooter’. The three-member team has successfully bagged the second prize in the International / Professional Award at SKYHacks2020; Best echoAR Hack at Silicon Valley Hacks; and Best AR/VR hack at HackNow, organized by Cal Hacks, a non-profit organization at the University of Berkeley, California.

Karthik, Koushik & Khushboo (Clockwise)

When asked how the idea of making such a game crossed their minds, Epperla Karthik, a 2nd Year student of Computer science and Engineering and a member of the team, said, “My family loves attending Tradeshows, every time we attend one my dad and I challenge each other to win a game of Whack A Mole. But, due to strict quarantine that my family is following, it’s been a while now for such challenges. My teammates and I, being gaming and virtual reality enthusiasts, decided to develop a VR version of ‘Whack A Mole.’”

‘Whack A Mole’ is a multiplayer virtual reality game that allows users to play against the computer or their families or both! One can use it on iOS or Android. It is built on Unity3D, on top of Photon PUN and GoogleVR SDK. It is also integrated with Google Firebase. “This was the very first time we were working on the development of virtual reality games and networking. As we had to run the game on our phone to record the gameplay, the output video on YouTube is a bit blurry,” explained Khushboo Sharma, another member of the team and a 2nd-year student of Computer Science and Engineering. “We completed the development of the game in only 20hrs, starting from scratch. We developed a few of our own UI elements and game assets. I feel the User-Interface of the app and the effects are pretty cool. VR development is real FUN! Moreover, there are a lot of API and SDK that unity supports,” exclaimed Koushik Bhargav, a 3rd-Year student of Computer Science and Engineering and the third member of the team.

‘Desert Shooter’ is another multiplayer virtual reality game developed by the team that allows users to play against the computer or their families or both. You can connect with your friends and play together. The game consists of a swarm of robot ships moving towards you and you have to protect yourself from them. “The interesting part is that all of this happens in Mixed Reality which makes the game immersive. We built it on Unity3D, on top of Photon PUN and GoogleVR SDK, Echoar. It is also integrated with Google Firebase and the assets are stored in echoar cloud. This project won the best AR/VR hack at “Hack: Now” which is organized by the University of California Berkeley,” said Epperla Karthik.

The team has plans to make this game to be a cross-platform game. Therefore, their next plan of action is to make the web version of it. The team is also planning to release it to production so that users can have an immersive experience of modern gaming techniques.

It is again proved that pure talent can never be put in quarantine. It will always find a way to express itself to the world. Our young developers have brilliantly used the ample time and opportunity to put their brains in best use and to bring recognitions from nationally and globally acclaimed competitions.

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Dr. Lakhveer Singh on clean and affordable bioelectrofuels

“Nanoenzyme as a cutting-edge innovation that makes bioelectrofuels more affordable and efficient for sustainable future”

Dr. Lakhveer Singh, Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Science, publishes a paper on “Bioelectrofuel Synthesis by Nanoenzymes: Novel Alternatives to Conventional Enzyme” in the journal “Trends in Biotechnology” with an Impact factor of 13.74. The paper discusses the vital role of nanozymes to advance Bioelectrochemical cells platforms for improved bioelectrofuels generation and waste remediation. Nanozymes are nanomaterials with intrinsic enzyme-like characteristics that have gained importance over the past decade because of its capability to address the limitations of natural enzymes – low stability, high cost, and difficult storage.

Waste recycle and reuse is the need of the hour, and are the most prioritized research in the 21st century. Innovation with present-day technologies as “Bioelectrochemical cells” with a focus on waste remediation, recovery and reuse is believed to strengthen the resource security along with building a sustainable and resilient society. “In order to mitigate several challenges pertaining to the ineffectual performance of microbial catalysts in electrode frameworks, nanomaterial-based nanozymes exhibit capabilities to boost their efficiency by enhancing microbial connection and interaction with electrode surface.”, explains Dr. Lakhveer.

Mechanisms of Nanoenzyme–Microbe Interaction That Facilitate Bioelectrofuel Production


THe further says, “The application of nanoenzymes to replace natural enzymes for improved bioelectrofuel production has long been under-rated. Recent advancements in bioinspired mimetics have led to applying nanoenzymes as a favourable bifunctional or multifunctional tool to achieve large turnover frequencies and high stability in bioelectrochemical platforms. Despite a few technical impediments, nanoenzymes guarantees clean and affordable bioelectrofuels”.

For long-term operations, biocompatibility is observed to remain a challenge associated with nanoenzymes. This is because of the concurrent shape change of nanoparticles during its gradual decomposition that often alters their electrocatalytic behaviour in response to prolonged operation, thus adversely affecting the electrofuel productivity. This paves the path for the future research work of Dr. Lakhveer which will focus on the preparation of nanoenzymes based electrocatalysts with doping of plasmonic or paramagnetic noble metals. This will counter the issue of mass loading and slow down the gradual decomposition process to ensure uninterrupted bioelectrofuels supply during long-term operation.

British Safety Council applauds JMC Projects (India) Limited – SRM University AP

The green campus of SRM AP, Andhra Pradesh is in the process of expanding to ensure a place that continuously inspires and nurtures the students. The buildings foster a new culture of learning that is multi-dimensional, global, social, experiential, and interactive. Designed by Perkins + Will, the American architecture firm which specializes in educational institutions and has been involved in developing some of the marquee structures in this category, JMC Projects (India) Limited took up the monumental task of constructing the buildings of SRM AP.

British Safety Council has awarded the International Safety Award with Merit 2020 to JMC Projects (India) Limited SRM University AP, Andhra Pradesh for its commitment to keeping the workers and workplaces healthy and safe during the 2019 calendar year. The prestigious award recognizes and celebrates the organizations from around the world which have shown a true dedication to prioritizing the safety of the workers and workplaces and have made outstanding advances to achieve it. It requires organizations to invest in workers’ health, safety, and wellbeing. The business leaders, managers, and staff play a crucial role in making health and safety a reality and inspiring their colleagues to do the same.

The joint venture of JMC Projects (India) Limited and SRM AP have pledged to continue maintaining the international standard in the future.

Dr Om Jee Pandey, Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, has recently published two papers in renowned IEEE journals. His paper “Secrecy Performance Analysis of Two-way Relay Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access Systems” was published in IEEE Access Journal, having an impact factor: 4.06. Whereas, “Fault-Resilient Distributed Detection and Estimation over an SW-WSN Using LCMV Beamforming” was published in IEEE Transactions in Network and Service Management (Impact factor: 4.682). The study was done in associations with Prof. Rajesh M Hegde, Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur and Prof. Ha H. Nguyen, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada. His research was focused on developing efficient Wireless Sensor Network services in small-world models. The proposed research can be applied in developing many state-of-the-art applications in the areas related to healthcare systems, climate-smart agriculture, intelligent transportation, home automation, manufacturing, smart utilities, and industries etc.

In order to develop efficient Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) services, several methods have been proposed for node localization, clustering of sensor nodes, new routing algorithms, adaptive duty cycles, usage of mixed-transmission models, placement of intelligent gateways, usage of mobile elements, and bypassing holes. However, the introduction of small-world characteristics in a WSN has hitherto not been used in this context. A small-world network is typically characterized by a low average path length and high average clustering coefficient and has been widely used to model social networks. However, small world models have not been used in the development of WSN. The primary objective of this research is to develop small world models for WSN services such as sensor node localization, data gathering, data fusion, network lifetime maximization, energy-balancing, reduced data transmission delay, time synchronization, energy-harvesting, and robust distributed detection and estimation. A small world WSN reduces the number of hops required for data transmission, and maximal utilization of sensor nodes closer to the sink. Other advantages of small world WSN include efficient bandwidth utilization, increased network lifetime, and fast convergence of event detection and parameter estimation. Small world WSN developed in tandem with novel routing strategies leads to improved WSN services for various applications.

In WSNs, sensor devices transfer the data cooperatively using multiple hops over a network. Multiple hops required for data transmission over a WSN leads to reduced network performance in the context of device localization, energy efficiency, energy balancing, data latency, speed of event detection and parameter estimation, and network robustness. This is because of poor distance estimation between sensor device pairs, maximum utilization of sensor devices closer to the sink, and a short radio range of sensor devices. Hence, the primary focus of this research work is to reduce the number of hops required for data transmission. In this context, Small World Characteristics (SWC) can be introduced in a WSN, leading to a small world WSN (SW-WSN). An SW-WSN is a well-connected network with reduced hop counts between node pairs.

Small world phenomena were first observed by Stanely Milgram in social connectivity of people. Later, it came out as a theory of “six degrees of separation”. Six degrees of separation claims that all people are six, or fewer, social connections away from each other. This theory is also known as the 6 Handshakes rule. Further, small-world phenomena have been investigated in graphs. Subsequently, SWC is observed in wireless networks. In general, small world WSNs (SW-WSNs) are characterized by low Average Path Length (APL) and high Average Clustering Coefficient (ACC). For an undirected WSN with N nodes, representing a regular network, the APL increases linearly with the number of nodes present in the network. On the other hand, in a WSN having SWC the APL, between two randomly selected nodes grows proportionally to the logarithm of the number of nodes in the network. “WSNs are spatial graphs, where links are created using radio connectivity. There is a limit on the radio range of a sensor node, hence in such networks, the long-range connections are generally absent. Thus, these networks are clustered, but they do not experience small-world phenomena. Hence, the primary focus of this work is to develop SW-WSN using various methods leading to efficient WSN services” explained Dr Pandey.

Dr Pandey is now busy to take the studies further. His future projects include-
• Small World WSN (or SW-WSN) Development for Smart Healthcare.
• Cognitive SW-WSN for Energy-Efficient CPS and IoT applications.
• Climate Smart Agriculture using Cognitive SW Characteristics.
• Low-Latency and Intelligent Transportation over small world CPS.
• Multi Sensor Fusion over SW-WSN for CPS/IoT Applications.
• Information and Context Quality in WSN, IoT and CPS Networks.

Dr. Lakhveer proposes to reduce the cost of bioreactors

Reputed publishing house Elsevier has published the illuminating research work of Dr. Lakhveer Singh, Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Science. The book named Bioreactors: Sustainable Design and Industrial Applications in Mitigation of GHG Emissions (1st Edition), is co-edited by Durga Mahapatra, Oregon State University, USA, Scientist and Dr Abu Yousuf, Assistant Professor, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Bangladesh.

Dawn of the 21st century has witnessed a solemn crisis in petroleum-derived fuels, consequently causing a major setback in chemicals/bio-products industries. Also, the researchers identify that the problem of climate change needs to be addressed by reducing the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Dr. Lakhveer states, “To cope up with soaring energy demands, the present generation requires a paradigm shift from fossil-based resources to renewables and sustainable systems which accentuates the necessity of bioreactors for employing bioenergy and bio-products recovery”.

Presently, sophisticated bioreactor technologies have resulted in towering industrial production significantly contributing to the global economy and benefiting human life. Bioreactors have a substantial role in building a sustainable economy and providing food, feed, energy and other basic amenities for a quality life. Numerous bioreactors have evolved over time through sustainable research targeting commercialization.

A bioreactor is a vessel-like device that provides a uniform background for microorganisms to grow. It maintains an uninterrupted balance in the biochemical reactions carried out by these microorganisms to produce the desired metabolites. The applications of bioreactors extend to biomass production such as microalgae, single-cell protein, and yeast. For metabolite formation like organic acids, ethanol, antibiotics, aromatic compounds, and pigments, bioreactors are absolute. It also contributes to transforming substrates like steroids along with supplementing to production of both the intra and extracellular enzymes.

Recently, Dr Singh has developed an innovative cost-effective hybrid bioelectrochemical reactor (15.0 L) in collaboration with Oregon State University, USA, capable of generating efficient hydrogen at a cost less than $2/kg of H2 from lignocellulose hydrolysates or wastewater.

“In our research we have developed numerous types of bioreactors ranging in size from 5.0 to 100 L. A few examples are immobilized up-flow bioreactor, two-stage thermophilic and mesophilic fermenter, sequential dark and photobioreactor as well as hybrid bioelectrochemical reactor for bioenergy production and valuable products recovery from various industrial and agriculture waste. “ informs Dr. Lakhveer.

The book “Bioreactors” presents and compares the foundational concepts, state-of-the-art design and fabrication of bioreactors. Solidly based on theoretical fundamentals, it examines various aspects of the commercially available bioreactors, that includes construction, fabrication, design, modeling, simulation, development, operation, maintenance, management, and target applications for biofuels production as well as bio-waste management. Emerging issues in commercial feasibility are explored in the book along with covering the constraints and pathways for upscaling. It also carries out rigorous techno-economic assessment.

“This book provides researchers and engineers in the biofuels and waste management sectors a clear understanding of the actual potential of various advanced bioreactors for their requirements. It allows them to embark on informed decisions while selecting the appropriate technology models for sustainable systems development and commercialization”, says Dr. Lakhveer.

Advancing his work, Dr Singh is developing efficient and economical bioreactors for commercial applications in the energy and water sectors. In this regard, three international patents have been filed. In the next few months, two more of his books are to be published by American Chemical Society, ACS and Elsevier. The books will emphasize issues and frontiers of reactors technology such as operation, novel design, cost analysis, novel electrodes, nano catalytic materials and other extended applications of bioreactors.