The Department of Computer Science and Engineering is delighted to announce that Dr Abinash Pujahari, Assistant Professor, has published his research article “Item Feature Refinement using Matrix Factorization and Boosted Learning based User Profile Generation for Content-Based Recommender Systems” in the journal Expert Systems with Applications having an Impact Factor of 8.665. The research was done in collaboration with Dr Dilip Singh Sisodia, Assistant Professor, National Institute of Technology Raipur.
This research focuses on improving the quality of information available about the features of various items so that it can be used for content-based recommendations. Content-based recommender systems are used in many e-commerce platforms (e.g., NetFlix, Amazon Prime, etc.). Here, the item (i.e., movies, TV shows) feature information is compared with the users’ past behaviour to recommend similar things. This research enables such systems to study the feature information for more accurate recommendations.
Most of the items’ feature information is sparse, redundant, and inconsistent. Matrix Factorization is used to avoid such inconsistencies. Further, iterative learning of user profiles is used using boosted learning approach for model building. The proposed research is compared with state-of-the-art related works using benchmark datasets and can be implemented in most e-commerce platforms and online streaming service providers. Dr Pujahari looks forwards to employing the same in group recommender systems where individuals have their preferences, in his future research endeavours.
The Department of Computer Science Engineering is glad to announce that Dr Kshira Sagar Sahoo, Assistant Professor, has published an article titled ‘Sustainable IoT Solution for Freshwater Aquaculture Management’ in the Q1 journal, IEEE Sensors, having an Impact Factor of 4.325. The research was published in collaboration with Munesh Singh, from the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, PDPM IIITDM Jabalpur Campus, Madhya Pradesh, and Anand Nayyar, Graduate School, Faculty of Information Technology, Duy Tan University, Vietnam.
Freshwater pearl farming has the potential to generate an alternative source of income for small farmers. Indian freshwater river bodies have 51 types of species that can produce pearls. Still, India imports 2.4 billion dollars’ worth of pearls from China and Japan. To reduce the import burden on the Indian economy, the government encouraged the farmers to do integrated freshwater pearl farming. Aquaculture-based farming needs a small investment for the initial setup. Although the Indian government promotes aquaculture-based farming through subsidies and free training programs, farmers find it difficult to get success in aquaculture-based farming.
The paper proposes a comprehensive IoT system for freshwater pearl farming which has an intelligent control system for maintaining the aquaculture environment. The proposed system monitors and supports the habitable underwater environments for aquaculture. To train the farmers and educate them in pearl farming business is a time taking and skill-oriented job. The comprehensive IoT system will encourage farmers for freshwater pearl farming and proper utilisation of the government subsidy granted for aqua farming. In future, the researchers will consider more relative water parameters for robust forecast and analyse the best model for predictive analysis.
Abstract of the Research
In recent years, we have seen the impact of global warming on changing weather patterns. The changing weather patterns have shown a significant effect on the annual rainfall. Due to the lack of annual rainfall, developing countries like India have seen a substantial loss in annual crop production. Indian economy largely depends on agro products. To compensate for the economic loss, the Indian government encouraged the farmers to do integrated aquaculture-based farming. Despite government subsidies and training programs, most farmers find it difficult to succeed in aquaculture-based farming. Aquaculture farming needs skills to maintain and monitor underwater environments. The lack of skills for monitoring and maintenance makes the aquaculture business more difficult for farmers. To simplify the pearl farming aquaculture, we have proposed an Internet of Things (IoT)-based intelligent monitoring and maintenance system. The proposed system monitors the water quality and maintains an adequate underwater environment for better production. To maintain an aquaculture environment, we have forecasted the change in water parameters using an ensemble learning method based on random forests (RF). The performance of the RF model was compared with the linear regression (LR), support vector regression (SVR), and gradient boosting machine (GBM). The obtained results show that the RF model outperformed the forecast of the DO with 1.428 mean absolute error (MAE) and pH with 0.141 MAE.
‘An interview with Professor Bandi Kamaiah’ was featured in the leading publication, IUP Journal of Applied Economics. Analysing the issues of Micro, Macro, Development and Energy economics, the journal features papers on Industrial economics, Public finance, Industry, Agricultural, Rural economics, etc. Having published interviews with eminent Professors like Professor K L Krishna, Professor Dilip Nachane, Professor U Sankar, Professor S Mahendra Dev, and Professor Ashima Goyal, the dialogue with Prof Bandi Kamaiah is the sixth in the series.
In the interview with Prof Bandi Kamaiah, Department of Economics, SRM University-AP, GRK Murty narrates the transformational journey of Prof Kamaiah from the son of a tenant farmer to an estimable researcher who went on to occupy the position of the President of ‘The Indian Econometric Society’ (TIES). The interview presents an enriching account of the veteran’s life who crossed innumerable hurdles to nurture his passion and became an ‘agent of change’ in the lives of several hundreds of first-generation students from the margins of society, by shaping them into accomplished professionals.
The evocative dialogue with Prof Kamaiah extends an open doorway to several inspiring phases of his life that modelled him into a “towering intellectual” and “outstanding teacher”. His collaboration with pre-eminent economists like Prof P R Bramhananda, Prof Dilip Nachane, and Prof C Rangarajan motivated him to build a career in monetary economics. He has successfully guided 50 PhDs and an equal number of MPhil dissertations from almost every facet of economics and published more than 160 papers in national and international journals.
The interview explicates his association with various institutes of prestige including the National Institute of Bank Management (NIBM), Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research (IGIDR) and the University of Hyderabad. As the founding father of the School of Economics at the University of Hyderabad, he has also introduced a two-year employment-enhancing master’s program in Financial Economics. His amicable and free-spirited approach made him one of the most sought-after teachers among the student community. He has a unique way of nurturing students and guiding them through the process of academic research.
Prof Kamaiah also articulates his views on the economic landscape of the country, the possible impact of its monetary and fiscal policies in the post-pandemic scenario, the growing correlation between the domestic and global stock markets, and the deepening relationship between energy consumption, real GDP, CO2 emissions, and such other climate-related issues. Airing his concerns about the outmoded syllabus and stagnant curriculum, he reiterates the need to renovate university education, hopefully, through the framework created by NEP 2020. He believes, creating specialised institutions would be a better way to train professionals who would become market ready and employable.
In his opinion, ‘Centres of Economic Excellence’ in different regions of the country will give rise to a strong pool of economists well-trained within the country to meaningfully replace the imported economists from the West to render advice on crucial matters. “The young minds of the country should be exposed to indigenous ways of thinking, and holistically trained to appreciate our culture, resources and institutions, systems and customs, ways of living, etc. to understand local markets, expose the basis of vulgar consumerism, the beauty of self-regulation without the aid of Adam Smith’s invisible hand, and social realism in contrast to self-interest”, said Prof Kamaiah.
“Physics is about questioning, studying, probing nature. You probe, and, if you’re lucky, you get strange clues” – Lene Hau
Are you a Physics student dreaming of the exciting possibilities and opportunities the subject may present you with? Well, your passion for physics is sure to gift you with endless opportunities to explore the world. No matter the type of career you choose, the magic of Physics will remain an integral part of your life. You could be an astronaut, a teacher, an engineer or a researcher, Physics will never fail you to take you to greater heights and depths of your interest.
The Department of Physics brings to you an exciting workshop on “Opportunities in Physics” with Prof R P Singh from Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad on July 29, 2022 at 10.00 am. Students pursuing advanced undergraduate and postgraduate programmes in Physics in various universities and colleges in the vicinity are invited to attend the workshop, visit on-campus research facilities, and interact with the speaker and the faculty. The keynote speaker, Prof R P Singh will give a seminar on “Free-space quantum communication”, and various presentations will also be organised as part of the workshop.
This is an excellent opportunity for the students to create a deeper perspective on the scopes and opportunities of pursuing Physics. They can also get in touch with experts in the field and experience the latest innovations during laboratory visits. Having a broader understanding of the infinite possibilities of the subject will certainly help students make an informed decision as to how to move ahead and grab the right opportunity.
Yet another moment of pride and honour for SRM University-AP as the Indian National Science Academy (INSA, New Delhi) has sanctioned the Project “Nalanda and Bodhgaya: Understanding the past environment and transnational networks of the World Heritage Sites” to Dr Sharmishtha Chatterjee, Assistant Professor, Department of History with a total outlay of Rs 5 lakhs. The co-investigator of the project is Dr Amrita Saha, Associate Professor and Deputy Director, Amity Institute of Environmental Sciences and Amity Institute of Social Sciences, Amity University, Kolkata. The project is a pioneering initiative to make a comprehensive study of the landscape and environmental factors (physical and cultural) governing the Buddhist World Heritage Sites of Nalanda and Bodhgaya (Bihar, India).
One of the first attempts in South Asia to understand monasteries and monastic complexes in relation to the landscape parameters, the work is distinctive in its scope and methodology because of its multidisciplinary approach involving archaeology, history, and environmental science. It aims for a holistic understanding of the sites and the region. Bodhgaya and Nalanda are two major Buddhist sites of India, the first marking the site of enlightenment of Gautama Buddha and the other being one of the oldest educational institutes of ancient times. Both the sites have been witnessing travellers, pilgrims, students, and religious preachers from the farthest corners of the world.
The foremost objective is to investigate the environmental settings (location, settlement geography, palaeolandscape features, layout of the monastic complexes, dietary patterns) of the monastic sites. This will be executed through the generation of a series of maps by superimposing colonial site plans, old maps, satellite imageries and corroboration of the same with extensive field surveys. The scientific study of the topographic delineations, soil samples, and artefactual evidences would be undertaken in the course of the study.
These attempts would generate a detailed study of the regular lives in the two monastic complexes along with the social and cultural ties established with the lesser-known monasteries and villages of the hinterland area. The project also seeks to explore the local, national, and transnational networks emanating from the sites, thus contributing to a global networking. The project is expected to create frameworks for extending the study to the other monastic complexes across South and Southeast Asia. In the long run the work will be published in the form of an annotated atlas featuring the monastic complexes, the wider geographical hinterland, and the transnational networks between India and Southeast Asia. This would serve as one of the noteworthy contributions that puts forth a holistic study of the cultural landscapes of the World Heritage Sites.
Inspite of being a plentiful and inexpensive metal, the use of copper nanoclusters is limited in bio-medical research because of their toxicity and low stability due to its easily oxidizable nature. It also has a low quantum yield. The interdisciplinary publication of the researchers at SRM University-AP successfully addressed these constraints, resulting in strong fluorescence, superior colloidal stability, and non-toxicity of copper nanoclusters for bio imaging applications. The research was a collective work of Dr Manjunatha Thondamal from the Department of Biological Sciences, Dr Mahesh Kumar Ravva and Dr Sabyasachi Chakrabortty from the Department of Chemistry along with their PhD scholars; Mr Kumar Babu Busi, Ms Kotha Jyothi, Ms Sheik Haseena, Ms Shamili Bandaru and Ms Jyothi Priyanka Ghantasala.
The article titled ‘“Engineering colloidally stable, highly fluorescent and nontoxic Cu nanoclusters via reaction parameter optimization” was featured in the prestigious Q1 journal RSC Advances (IF: 4.036), published by the ‘Royal Society of Chemistry’. They successfully prepared the protein stabilised copper nanoclusters inside the aqueous medium with exceptional optical properties. To the best of their knowledge, the reported colloidal stability and quantum yield of their as-synthesized Cu NCs are the highest reported in the literature, where the emission wavelength is in the red region. Also, optimised copper nanoclusters showed excellent biocompatibility towards solid cancer cell lines and C. elegans as in vitro and in vivo environments. Thus, these red colour luminescent copper nanoclusters were becoming a suitable fluorescent probe for deep tissue penetration, photodynamic, photothermal and diagnostic applications.
Abstract of the Research
Metal Nanoclusters (NCs) composed of the least number of atoms (few to tens) became very attractive for their emerging properties owing to their ultrasmall size. Preparing copper nanoclusters (Cu NCs) in an aqueous medium with high emission properties, strong colloidal stability, and low toxicity has been a long-standing challenge. Although they are earth-abundant and inexpensive, they are comparatively less explored due to their limitations such as ease of surface oxidation, poor colloidal stability, and high toxicity. To overcome these constraints, we established a facile synthetic route by optimizing the reaction parameters, especially altering the effective concentration of the reducing agent to influence their optical characteristics. The improvement of photoluminescence intensity and superior colloidal stability was modelled from a theoretical standpoint. Moreover, the as-synthesized Cu NCs showed a significant reduction of toxicity in both in vitro and in vivo models. The possibilities of using such Cu NCs as a diagnostic probe towards C. elegans were explored. Also, the extension of this approach towards improving the photoluminescence intensity of the Cu NCs on other ligand systems was demonstrated.
“Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research” (INSPIRE) programme is a flagship initiative of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) to persuade young and talented science enthusiasts to pursue various fields of sciences and instigate quality research to strengthen the Science and Technology network of the country.
INSPIRE fellowship is one of the important components under the purview of INSPIRE programme to attract Science graduates to undertake Doctoral research in both basic and applied sciences. The fellowship enables the aspirants to pursue research at any recognized university or institute in India.
SRM University-AP is glad to host the subject expert committee meeting on July 14 & 15, 2022, to select the meritorious candidates for the DST-INSPIRE fellowship 2022 to pursue PhD in physics at any recognized institute across the country. During the meeting, the expert committee will list out the most deserving candidates among scores of applicants from all over the country.
As part of the event, an interactive session has been scheduled with the eminent scientist Dr Umesh K Sharma, DST New Delhi. He would cast light on the scopes and opportunities of pursuing doctorate with an INSPIRE fellowship. A talk by Prof Dinakar Kanjilal, Ex-Director IUAC Delhi, will also be organized to give the faculty and students a comprehensive understanding of the same.
Distinguished Members of the DST INSPIRE Meeting
Dr Umesh K Sharma
Dr Dinakar Kanjilal
Dr G Vijaya Prakash
Dr Anandamayee Tej
Dr Arijit Chowdhuri
The Department of Physics is glad to announce that Prof Ranjit Thapa and his PhD scholar, Mr Samadhan Kapse, have published a patent titled “Highly Stable Ruthenium Single-Atom Catalysts on Fe3O4/MWCNTs for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction” (Application no. 202241006087). The research was done in collaboration with Ms Shwetha K R, Mr Shivanna M and Dr Nagaraju D H, from the Department of Chemistry, School of Applied Sciences, REVA University, Bangalore.
A Brief Description of the Research
In the current work, Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by a simple chemical co-precipitation method under an inert atmosphere, and it was utilised for HER studies. Ru nanoparticles were profitably deposited over Fe3O4/MWCNTs modified glassy carbon electrode by the electrochemical deposition technique. The superior HER activity was achieved on Fe3O4/MWCNTs/Ru in 0.1M H2SO4 aqueous media. We demonstrated that synthesised electrocatalyst offers low over potential 101 mV to reach a current density of 10 mA cm-2 towards hydrogen evolution reaction. It displays exceptional stability and finds to be of no change in the HER activity despite 1000 cycles. It is emphasised that a small weight percentage of ruthenium in the prepared catalyst can replace high-cost platinum in renewable energy technologies.
Social Implications of the Research
Production of renewable energy has greater significance in the present situation owing to the impact of the depletion of non-renewable energy resources such as fossil fuels and the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Hydrogen has gained considerable interest as an energy storage and energy carrier due to its high energy density (146kJ/g), and its utilisation also eliminates pollution and toxicity. Several methods have been explored to produce molecular hydrogen. Among them, the electrolysis of water is the best way to produce high purity hydrogen from water. An excellent electrocatalyst is obligatory to liberate hydrogen gas effectively from water. It is known that Superior HER activity has been achieved using platinum (Pt) and Pt-based catalysts. Due to its high cost and low surplus, its expansion has been limited to the industrial scale. The research proposes that Ru-based catalysts can overcome these challenges.
DFT study is more effective to find the origin of catalytic activity in materials for designing highly promising catalysts for various catalytic reactions. The researchers expressed their gratitude to SRM University-AP for providing the required computational facility and support.
Agricultural development is one of the powerful tools to boost the economy of any developing country. The recent advancement of IoT-based smart agriculture systems helps to achieve more productivity with relatively less overhead. The Department of Computer Science and Engineering is glad to announce that their faculty; Dr Sobin CC, Associate Professor; Dr Sonam Maurya, Assistant Professor; and Dr Amit Kumar Singh, Assistant Professor; have published a patent titled “Smart Agriculture System using Delay Tolerant Internet of Things” (Application No. 20224102799), a framework for smart agricultural applications using Delay Tolerant Internet of Things (DT-IoT) which can handle the issues related to disruptions in network connectivity.
The inherent limitations of IoT-based smart agriculture systems majorly in terms of resource constraints, frequent network disconnections and vulnerability to many attacks may affect their advantages over the traditional systems. The application using DT-IoT, with access to greater network connectivity can deliver relevant data in real-time. Furthermore, the stored data can be processed and analysed to help farmers in making critical decisions related to their farm filed. Hence, their innovation focuses on designing and developing a prototype for a smart agricultural application using the Internet of Things (IoT).
One of the simplest outcomes of providing smart agricultural solutions for remote villages in India will be greater support to the farmers to improve their productivity and better decision-making in cultivation. But advanced technologies need Internet connectivity in the field to function, which is still a dream in many of the remote villages in India. The lack of proper communication facilities faces off the application of IoT networks. This fact has motivated them to propose a smart agricultural system to work on agricultural application issues using delay-tolerant characteristics. The use of delay-tolerant features in traditional IoT provides a solution for smart agriculture which can handle issues related to disruptions in connection to improve communications.
Another important aspect is that many of the applications, including IoT/Sensor networks, are either simulation-based or experimental. A very few of the applications are developed and implemented in the real-time field for the benefit of farmers in remote villages. In most of the remote villages in India, most of the farmers are poor, many of them are even without primary school education and they rely mostly on traditional agricultural practices which they received from their previous generations. Therefore, their study proposed to test and implement the smart agricultural system with real-time automated solutions related to irrigation, controlled fertilisation, cultivation, production quality, quantity, crop health etc. using IoT with delay-tolerant support. They are also in the process of collaborating with academia and industry to execute this project.
- Proposed smart agriculture system will assist in real-time monitoring of farm field conditions, like irrigation, soil quality, and nutrient deficiency.
- It provides support to farmers to improve their productivity and decision-making in crop cultivation.
- The proposed system will provide optimization in terms of seed selection, resource utilisation, planning cultivation, marketing, harvest quality, etc., using Machine Learning techniques.
- Agricultural field data analysis (for data collected by the large group of sensors) and its visualisation.
- Weather prediction (for better planning).
- Price prediction (for better marketing strategies).
Fig 1: Main components of the proposed Smart Agriculture System
Fig 2: Illustration of 3-level architecture implementation in the Smart Agriculture System
Dr Pankaj Pathak from the Department of Environmental Science has been keenly involved in research studies involving solid waste management and the effective conversion of wastes to energy. Her latest research publication ‘A comprehensive review on integrative approach for sustainable management of plastic waste and its associated externalities’ in the journal Science of the Total Environment (Impact Factor: 10.973) proposes enhanced solution for the sustainable management of plastic wastes. The article was published in collaboration with her PhD Scholar MSSR Tejaswini, Prof Sreeram Ramakrishna from the Centre for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, National University of Singapore and Dr P Sankar Ganesh from BITS Pilani, Hyderabad.
Abstract of the Research
The management of post-consumer discarded plastic wastes (PCPW) creates new challenges in developing countries due to the lack of amenities, technological interventions, and associated negative environmental externalities. The fate of untreated recyclable and non-recyclable plastic wastes lies in open dumping along with other solid waste, and improper management leads to environmental externalities such as pollution, global climate change, and health issues. Additionally, open dumping upsurges the emerging microplastics and nano plastics (MNPs) contaminants. The externalities depend on the waste generating sources (household, industries, commercial), waste composition, and its characteristics. However, urban mining can minimize environmental externalities where waste plastics can convert into potential anthropogenic resources and also helps in achieving the target of sustainable development goals (SDGs 11 & 12). Moreover, various treatment technologies that help in the sustainable utilization of plastic wastes are extensively reviewed in this study and evaluate the costs benefits arising during various stages of treating plastic waste through recycling (R), incineration (I), and landfilling (L). The recycling of plastic waste has demonstrated the lowest impact on global warming potential (GWP) and total energy use (TEU), followed by landfilling and incineration (R < L < I). Nevertheless, when energy is recovered from inert (non-recyclable) plastic waste in the form of fuel or by its utilization in construction purposes, the environmental impacts are more negligible (Incineration < Landfilling). Therefore, this study determines the significance of circular economy with legislative approach and standards on plastic waste management, which help in reducing environmental externalities besides yielding a secondary resource as energy and materials through urban mining. A sustainable plastic waste management (SPWM) model is proposed for developing countries to convert plastic waste into resources and use it as a sustainable tool in urban mining.
Yet another article, ‘Comprehensive technological assessment for different treatment methods of leather tannery wastewater’, co- published by Dr Pankaj Pathak along with a group of other researchers was featured in the journal Environmental Science and Pollution Research having an Impact Factor of 5.19. The work offers some exhaustive observations and recommendations that could be helpful in the industry to manage tannery wastewater and recirculate the water in a sustainable manner.
Abstract of the Research
The leather-making process necessitates large amounts of water and consequently generates tons of liquid waste as leather tannery wastewater (TWW) is disposed of directly in the open environment. Open disposal of untreated TWW into the natural environment causes an accumulation of various polluting compounds, including heavy metals, dyes, suspended solids inorganic matter, biocides, oils, tannins, and other toxic chemicals. It thus poses potential hazards to the environment and human health. This study primarily focuses on providing in-depth insight into the characteristics, treatment strategies, and regulatory frameworks for managing TWW in leather processing industries. Different technologies of conventional physico-chemical (equalization, coagulation, and adsorption), advanced approaches (Fenton oxidation, ozonation, cavitation), thermo-catalytic and biological treatments available to treat TWW, and their integrative approaches were also highlighted. This review also sheds light on the most frequently applied technologies to reduce contaminant load from TWW though there are several limitations associated with it such as being ineffective for large quantities of TWW, waste generation during treatment, and high operational and maintenance (O&M) costs. It is concluded that the sustainable alternatives applied in the current TWW technologies can minimize O&M costs and recirculate the treated water in the environment. The exhaustive observations and recommendations presented in this article are helpful in the industry to manage TWW and recirculate the water in a sustainable manner.